Exam 1-Diarthosis...Common Features Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 1-Diarthosis...Common Features Deck (30):
1

What are the four constituent features of synovail (diarthrosis) joints?

articular or fibrous capsule, synovial membrane, articular cartilage and synovial fluid

2

Thickening of the fibrous capsule connective tissue will form the

capsular ligament

3

What generic accessory ligaments may accompany and support the capsular ligament?

intracapsular and extracapsular ligaments

4

What are the characteristics of the type I articular receptors?

located in the superficial layer of the fibrous capsule, resemble Ruffini endings, most numerous in cervical zygapophyses and they monitor the joint "at rest"

5

What are the characteristics of type II articular receptors?

loacted in the deeper strata of the fibrous capsule, resemble pacinian corpuscles, most numerous in the cervical spoine and monitor joint during normal range of motion

6

What are the characteristics of type III articular receptors?

present in collateral and intrinsic ligaments, resemble Golgi tendon organs, not initially observed along the veretebral column and monitor extreme joint motion

7

What is the function of type IV articular receptors?

nociceptive, they monitor pain

8

Type IVa articular receptors would be present in what locations?

fibrous capsule, articular fat pads or adventitia of blood vessels

9

Type IVb articular receptors would be presentin what locations?

accessory ligaments in general, dense in the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine

10

Type IV articular receptors would be absent in what part(s) of the synovial (diarthrosis) joint?

synovial membrane, articular cartilage and synovial menisci or intra-articular discs

11

What are the three modifications of articular synovial membrane?

1 synovial villi
2 articular fat pads or Haversian glands
3 synovial menisci and intra-articular discs

12

What is the generic finction of modifications of articular synovial membrane?

aid in spreading synovial fluid

13

What is the apparent function of synovial villi?

increase the surface of synovial membrane available for secretion-reabsoption phenomena

14

Where are the articular fat pads located?

in the fibrous layer of synovial membrane; they are absent from articular cartilage, synovial menisci, intra-articluar discs

15

Articular fat pads are most numerous in what location along the vertebral column?

lumbar zygapophyses

16

Intra-articular discs are a feature of what joint examples?

temporomandibular, sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, and radio-ulnar joints

17

Synovial menisci are a feature of what joint examples?

femur-tibia articulation, cervical zygapophyses and lumbar zygapophyses

18

What are the layers of the synovail membrane?

outer fibrous layer and an inner (lumenal) cellular layer AKA synovial lamina intima

19

What is the specific function of type a synovial cells?

are phagocytic

20

What is the specific function of type B synovial cells?

secrete proteinaceous substances and hyaluronic acid

21

What are theprimary constituents of articular cartilage?

water, cells, collagen type II fibers, and a proteoglycan gel

22

What is the primary function of bound glycosaminoglycans in articular cartilage?

form a network for water retention

23

What is implied whencarilage is said to have elastic properties?

cartilage can deform and returns to original volume rapidly, a time independent property

24

What is impled when cartilage is said to have viscoelastic properties?

cartilage can deform but returns to original volume slowly, a time dependent property

25

Which theory of joint lubrication implied a loss of fluid from the cartilage into the joint space during compression results in increased viscosity of the synovial fluid?

weeping theory

26

Which theory of joint lubrication implies water loss from the synovial fluid increases viscosity of the remaining synovial fluid?

boosted theory

27

Which theory of joint lubrication implies an adsorption of lubrication onto cartilage surfaces is responsible for the low-friction observed during movement?

boundary theory

28

What are the properties of synovial fluid?

it is yellow-white, viscous, slightly alkaline and tastes salty

29

Which substance in synovial fluid was first thought to be responsible for its viscosity and lubricating behavior?

hylauronate

30

What substance of synovial fluid has been proposed to be responsible for its viscosity and lubricating behavior?

lubricin