Flashcards in Exam 1 - Kines text Chapter 2 Deck (113):
What causes us to move and what allows us to move efficiently without apparent thought?
(some of these systems include:)
Part of the peripheral nervous system; efferent or motor innervation controlling the viscera; innervates smooth and cardiac muscle as well as glands; supplies info from the INTERNAL environment; basically it helps maintain internal balance as it responds to internal stimuli
Autonomic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Central Nervous System
Also called efferent; relays information from the CNS to structures that need to react or respond; carries info away from CNS
The division of the Nervous System that includes the brain & spinal cord
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
The division of nervous system that links the CNS with the muscles and glands; provides sensory info to the CNS; further subdivided into autonomic and somatic divisions
Peripheral Nervous System
Also called afferent; transmits signals from receptors to the CNS; carries info to the CNS
Subdivision of the PNS; sensory receptors and nerves related to the external environment; nerves linking these to the CNS and efferent nerves returning to the skeletal muscle; responds to things happening outside of the body
Organs located within body cavities
Motor neurons in the CNS are referred to as _________.
UMNs - upper motor neron
Motor neurons in the PNS
T/F - the ANS has cell bodies in both the CNS and PNS
Loss of voluntary movement due to increase in muscle tone including spasms, tendon reflexes are increased or hyperexcitable
What is hypertonia?
increased muscle tone - Jason suffers from this
Kinesiology for $500: This is known as a loss of voluntary movement due to lack of muscle tone; tendon reflexes are also decreased or absent.
What is flaccid paralysis? Correct!
What is hypotonia?
decreased muscle tone
loss of muscle refers to
T/F - Peripheral nerves have the capacity for regeneration and repair if the cell body remains intact
How much does the peripheral nerves regenerate?
2 to 4 mm/day
CNS is divided into 5 levels of control - what are these 5 levels of control?
cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord
The cerebral (motor) cortex is concerned with ______ movement.
related to the canal of the ear, the organ of equillibrium
the ability to receive stimuli from within one's body, such as from muscles, tendons, & other internal tissues
What does COPD stand for?
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
This disease is characterized by degenerative changes in the alveoli, resulting in breathlessness on exertion.
Incoordination; inability to execute coordinated voluntary movement; loss of smooth execution of movement
wasting of tissue, esp. in muscle due to lack of use
irregular, involuntary movements of the limbs or facial muscles, often described as dance-like motions
Difficulty in performing voluntary movements; (The word is divided into two parts - ___ meaning bad or difficult, ______ referring to movement)
Accumulation of excessive amounts of watery fluid in cells, tissues or serious cavities
External receivers, afferent nerve endings that respond to stimulation by external agents, specialized in receiving info from the external envionment, such as the eyes
Sometimes referred a flexor reflex, protective; the withdrawal of a limb in response to painful stimulation
relaxed, without tone
"above or over tone" - extreme tension of the muscles
"under tone"; having a lesser degree of tension; diminished muscular tone
"Internal receivers," afferent nerve endings or receptors that respond to stimulation from within the body, primarily from visceral organs.
the normal state of tension of muscles caused by partial contractions of some of the muscle fibers
loss of power of voluntary movement in a muscle through injury or disease to its nerve supply
A sensory end-organ in muscles, tendons, joint capsules, and inner ear allowing us to know the location of one body part in relation to another; activated by movement or action of the organism itself
a state of increased muscular tone, muscles are continuously tight or stiff
slight stretching of a muscle lengthens fibers, causing stimulation of sensory endings, which leads to contraction of the muscle. Protective reflex to avoid overstretching
related to the vestibule of the ear; a vestibule is a small space or region at the entrance of a canal
Muscle tension develops, but the muscle length does not change.
The length of the muscle changes, causing joint movement (think doing bicep curls, bringing the dumbbells toward you)
An isotonic contraction is considered ________ when the muscle shortens and the joint angle is decreased.
If your muscle contracts with less force than needed to overcome resistance, ____ contraction occurs. The muscle is lengthening under stress
The muscle's ability to shorten in length
A muscle's ability to be stretched or lengthened
A muscle's ability to return to its original length after it has been stretched
The capacity of the muscle to receive and respond to a stimulus, whether that's chemical, electrical or mechaical
knees secrete a special fluid
Increase the pain-free movement avail at a given joint. Cannot be performed voluntarily
Three types of accessory motions
roll, spin, and glide
Joints - 3 types
synarthrodial, amphiarhrodial, diarthrodial
_____ joints are enclosed w/in a joint capsule that secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint - thus, these joints are also referred to as _____ joints.
____________ joints allow for the most movement
____________ joints in the hand represent joints w/ 2 degrees of freedom
Which joint allows 3 degrees of freedom?
ball and socket
In addition to voluntary motions, _________ motions increase the pain-free movement available at a given joint.
The 3 types of accessory motions
roll, spin, & glide
Each dorsal nerve root receives feedback from a specific area of skin on the body - the specific area is labeled a ____________.
Which 2 nerves do the brachal plexus service
Radial & Ulnar
Which 2 nerves do the lumbosacral plexus service
femoral & sciatic
Where the muscle begins
The ________ is usally distal or farther away from the trunk and midline of the body & is considered the most movable part.
This terminology is used when the insertion is stable & the origin moves toward the insertion (like a push-up)
reversal of muscle function
______ muscles originate distal to the joint
______ muscles originate proximal to the joint
The skull & trunk compose the ________ skeleton
The extremities (and other things) compose the _______ skeleton
Give an example of a bony projection "crest"
iliac crest, crest of tibia
Give an example of a bony projection "epicondyle"
lateral epicondyle of humerus
Give an example of a bony projection "process"
olecranon process, styloid process
Give an example of a bony projection "spine"
anterior superior iliac spine
Give an example of a bony projection "trochanter"
Greater trochanter of femur, malleolus
Name the 3 planes
frontal plane divides body
anterior and posterior
Transverse plane divides body
upper and lower
left and right
The axis for movement on the frontal plane is
The axis for movement on the sagittal plane is the
The axis for movement on the transverse plane is the
Joint types include (the specific kinds like We all know ball and socket - what are some more?):
ball and socket
gliding (remember carpal bones)
Lateral movement away from midline or center of body
medial movement toward midline or center of body
bending of joint; usually reduces joint angle
joint angle increases, straightening
combination of flexion, extension, abduction, & adduction leading to circular motion
rotary movement around vertical axis of bone away from midline of body
rotary movement around vertical axis of bone toward midline of body
position of forearm when palm is facing down
position of forearm when palm is facing up
humerus positioned in horizontal plane, arm raised to 90 degrees, with movement away from midline and toward back of body
humerus positioned in horizontal plan, arm raised to 90 degrees, with movement toward midline and front of body
movement of head, neck, or trunk laterally away from midline or center of body
toward the front of the body
toward the back of the body
toward the head or higher than another structure
toward the feet or lower than another structure
toward the midline
toward the sides of the body, away from the midline, on or to the side
toward or closer to the attachment to the trunk or origin, nearer to the center of the body
away from or further from the midline of the body
toward the surface of the body
toward the inside of the body
opposite sides of body - right vs left
on the same side of the body; right arm and right leg are
lying on stomach in face-down position
lying on back in a face-up position