Exam 1 - Kines text Chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

Therapeutic Modalities II > Exam 1 - Kines text Chapter 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1 - Kines text Chapter 2 Deck (113):
1

What causes us to move and what allows us to move efficiently without apparent thought?

(some of these systems include:)
Neuromuscular system
Muscular system
skeletal structures

2

Part of the peripheral nervous system; efferent or motor innervation controlling the viscera; innervates smooth and cardiac muscle as well as glands; supplies info from the INTERNAL environment; basically it helps maintain internal balance as it responds to internal stimuli

Autonomic Nervous System

3

ANS

Autonomic Nervous System

4

CNS

Central Nervous System

5

Also called efferent; relays information from the CNS to structures that need to react or respond; carries info away from CNS

Motor Neuron

6

The division of the Nervous System that includes the brain & spinal cord

Central Nervous System

7

PNS

Peripheral Nervous System

8

The division of nervous system that links the CNS with the muscles and glands; provides sensory info to the CNS; further subdivided into autonomic and somatic divisions

Peripheral Nervous System

9

Also called afferent; transmits signals from receptors to the CNS; carries info to the CNS

Sensory Neuron

10

Subdivision of the PNS; sensory receptors and nerves related to the external environment; nerves linking these to the CNS and efferent nerves returning to the skeletal muscle; responds to things happening outside of the body

Somatic Division

11

Organs located within body cavities

Viscera

12

Motor neurons in the CNS are referred to as _________.

UMNs - upper motor neron

13

Motor neurons in the PNS

LMNs

14

T/F - the ANS has cell bodies in both the CNS and PNS

T

15

Loss of voluntary movement due to increase in muscle tone including spasms, tendon reflexes are increased or hyperexcitable

spastic

16

What is hypertonia?

increased muscle tone - Jason suffers from this

17

Kinesiology for $500: This is known as a loss of voluntary movement due to lack of muscle tone; tendon reflexes are also decreased or absent.

What is flaccid paralysis? Correct!

18

What is hypotonia?

decreased muscle tone

19

loss of muscle refers to

atrophy

20

T/F - Peripheral nerves have the capacity for regeneration and repair if the cell body remains intact

T

21

How much does the peripheral nerves regenerate?

2 to 4 mm/day

22

CNS is divided into 5 levels of control - what are these 5 levels of control?

cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord

23

The cerebral (motor) cortex is concerned with ______ movement.

voluntary

24

related to the canal of the ear, the organ of equillibrium

vestibular

25

the ability to receive stimuli from within one's body, such as from muscles, tendons, & other internal tissues

proprioceptive

26

What does COPD stand for?

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

27

This disease is characterized by degenerative changes in the alveoli, resulting in breathlessness on exertion.

COPD

28

Incoordination; inability to execute coordinated voluntary movement; loss of smooth execution of movement

Ataxia

29

wasting of tissue, esp. in muscle due to lack of use

atrophy

30

irregular, involuntary movements of the limbs or facial muscles, often described as dance-like motions

Chorea

31

Difficulty in performing voluntary movements; (The word is divided into two parts - ___ meaning bad or difficult, ______ referring to movement)

Dyskinesia

32

Accumulation of excessive amounts of watery fluid in cells, tissues or serious cavities

Edema

33

External receivers, afferent nerve endings that respond to stimulation by external agents, specialized in receiving info from the external envionment, such as the eyes

Exteroreceptors

34

Sometimes referred a flexor reflex, protective; the withdrawal of a limb in response to painful stimulation

flexor withdrawl

35

relaxed, without tone

flaccid

36

"above or over tone" - extreme tension of the muscles

hypertonia

37

"under tone"; having a lesser degree of tension; diminished muscular tone

hypotonia

38

"Internal receivers," afferent nerve endings or receptors that respond to stimulation from within the body, primarily from visceral organs.

Interoreceptors

39

the normal state of tension of muscles caused by partial contractions of some of the muscle fibers

Tone

40

loss of power of voluntary movement in a muscle through injury or disease to its nerve supply

paralysis

41

A sensory end-organ in muscles, tendons, joint capsules, and inner ear allowing us to know the location of one body part in relation to another; activated by movement or action of the organism itself

proprioceptor

42

a state of increased muscular tone, muscles are continuously tight or stiff

spasticity

43

slight stretching of a muscle lengthens fibers, causing stimulation of sensory endings, which leads to contraction of the muscle. Protective reflex to avoid overstretching

stretch reflex

44

related to the vestibule of the ear; a vestibule is a small space or region at the entrance of a canal

vestibular

45

Muscle tension develops, but the muscle length does not change.

Isometric contraction

46

The length of the muscle changes, causing joint movement (think doing bicep curls, bringing the dumbbells toward you)

isotonic contractions

47

An isotonic contraction is considered ________ when the muscle shortens and the joint angle is decreased.

concentric

48

If your muscle contracts with less force than needed to overcome resistance, ____ contraction occurs. The muscle is lengthening under stress

eccentric

49

The muscle's ability to shorten in length

contractility

50

A muscle's ability to be stretched or lengthened

extensibility

51

A muscle's ability to return to its original length after it has been stretched

elasticity

52

The capacity of the muscle to receive and respond to a stimulus, whether that's chemical, electrical or mechaical

irritability

53

knees secrete a special fluid

synovial fluid

54

decubiti

ulcers/bed sores

55

Increase the pain-free movement avail at a given joint. Cannot be performed voluntarily

accessory motion

56

Three types of accessory motions

roll, spin, and glide

57

Joints - 3 types

synarthrodial, amphiarhrodial, diarthrodial

58

_____ joints are enclosed w/in a joint capsule that secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint - thus, these joints are also referred to as _____ joints.

diarthrodial; synovial

59

____________ joints allow for the most movement

diarthrodial

60

____________ joints in the hand represent joints w/ 2 degrees of freedom

metacarpophalangeal (MCP)

61

Which joint allows 3 degrees of freedom?

ball and socket

62

In addition to voluntary motions, _________ motions increase the pain-free movement available at a given joint.

accessory

63

The 3 types of accessory motions

roll, spin, & glide

64

Each dorsal nerve root receives feedback from a specific area of skin on the body - the specific area is labeled a ____________.

dermatome

65

Which 2 nerves do the brachal plexus service

Radial & Ulnar

66

Which 2 nerves do the lumbosacral plexus service

femoral & sciatic

67

Where the muscle begins

origin

68

The ________ is usally distal or farther away from the trunk and midline of the body & is considered the most movable part.

insertion

69

This terminology is used when the insertion is stable & the origin moves toward the insertion (like a push-up)

reversal of muscle function

70

______ muscles originate distal to the joint

intrinsic

71

______ muscles originate proximal to the joint

extrinsic

72

The skull & trunk compose the ________ skeleton

axial

73

The extremities (and other things) compose the _______ skeleton

appendicular

74

Give an example of a bony projection "crest"

iliac crest, crest of tibia

75

Give an example of a bony projection "epicondyle"

lateral epicondyle of humerus

76

Give an example of a bony projection "process"

olecranon process, styloid process

77

Give an example of a bony projection "spine"

anterior superior iliac spine

78

Give an example of a bony projection "trochanter"

Greater trochanter of femur, malleolus

79

Name the 3 planes

Frontal (coronal)
Transverse (horizontal)
Sagittal (anterioposterior)

80

frontal plane divides body

anterior and posterior

81

Transverse plane divides body

upper and lower

82

sagittal plane

left and right

83

The axis for movement on the frontal plane is

sagittal axis

84

The axis for movement on the sagittal plane is the

frontal axis

85

The axis for movement on the transverse plane is the

vertical axis

86

Joint types include (the specific kinds like We all know ball and socket - what are some more?):

ball and socket
hinge
saddle
pivot
gliding (remember carpal bones)
condyloid

87

Lateral movement away from midline or center of body

abduction

88

medial movement toward midline or center of body

adduction

89

bending of joint; usually reduces joint angle

flexion

90

joint angle increases, straightening

extension

91

combination of flexion, extension, abduction, & adduction leading to circular motion

circumduction

92

rotary movement around vertical axis of bone away from midline of body

lateral rotation

93

rotary movement around vertical axis of bone toward midline of body

medial rotation

94

position of forearm when palm is facing down

pronation

95

position of forearm when palm is facing up

supination

96

humerus positioned in horizontal plane, arm raised to 90 degrees, with movement away from midline and toward back of body

horizontal abduction

97

humerus positioned in horizontal plan, arm raised to 90 degrees, with movement toward midline and front of body

horizontal adduction

98

movement of head, neck, or trunk laterally away from midline or center of body

Lateral flexion

99

toward the front of the body

anterior

100

toward the back of the body

posterior

101

toward the head or higher than another structure

superior

102

toward the feet or lower than another structure

inferior

103

toward the midline

medial

104

toward the sides of the body, away from the midline, on or to the side

lateral

105

toward or closer to the attachment to the trunk or origin, nearer to the center of the body

proximal

106

away from or further from the midline of the body

distal

107

toward the surface of the body

superficial

108

toward the inside of the body

deep

109

opposite sides of body - right vs left

contralateral

110

on the same side of the body; right arm and right leg are

ipsilateral

111

lying on stomach in face-down position

prone

112

lying on back in a face-up position

supine

113

The two reference Positions that may be used to describe movement and illustrate planes are the _______position and the _____position

anatomical position and fundamental position