Flashcards in Exam 1 Koh- Aqueous Humor 1 Deck (82)
What are some growth factors in the AH?
Acidic and basic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF and bFGF), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth facotr (EGF), IL-6 (anti-inflam)
What are some trace molecules in low abundance in the aqueous humor?
Steroid hormone, catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine), prostaglandins 2 ng/mL
Prostaglandins are ___x higher in the inflamed eye
What second messangers are in the AH?
Cyclic nucleotides (cA/GMP), atrial natriuretic peptide
How do second messangers alter aqueous secretion?
Via transport of the HCO3- ion across the cells
Which molecules are more abundant in the aqueous?
Lactate, ascorbate, Cl-
Which molecules are more abundant in the plasma?
Glucose, albumin, transferrin, fibronectin, IgG, and Ca2+
What is the dominant cation in the aqueous?
What is the dominant anion in the aqueous?
What molecules have similar concentration in aqueous and plasma?
Na+, K+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3-
What fraction are lipids in the plasma?
Oxygen concentration is what percentage of the plasma value?
How is IOP determined?
By the rate of aqueous production and flow, outflow resistance, and episcleral venous pressure
What happens to steady- state IOP?
Aqueous inflow is equal to outflow
What are the outflow paths of IOP?
Trabecular and uveoscleral outflow
How do you lower IOP?
By reducing inflow, or by increasing outflow, or a combination of both
IOP change is ____ in glaucoma patients with progressive visual fields
What are the diurnal fluctuations of IOP?
Increased variation in daytime (diurnal) IOP than healthy control, no difference between the groups in nocturnal IOP fluctuation
Transient IOP spikes may induce what?
Optic nerve damage
What is the IOP in cornea?
>/= 40 mm Hg
What happens if the IOP in the cornea is too high?
Megalocornea, photophobia, Haab's striae