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1

what is the name of the process by which the bilaminar germ disc is converted to a trilaminar germ disc?

Gastrulation

2

what is Gastrulation?

the process by which a bilaminar germ disc is converted into a trilaminar disc

3

what is the beginning of Morphogenesis?

Gastrulation is the beginning of morphogenesis

4

the Embryo can be referred to as?

the Gastrula

5

Rapid development of the embryo from the trilaminar embryonic disc during the third week is characterized by?

-the appearance of the primitive streak
-Development of the Notochord
-Differentiation of the three germ layers

6

what are the genes that play a role in gastrulation?

-Bone morphogenetic proteins
-SHH- sonic hedgehog
-Tgifs
-Wnts

7

what are the three layers of the Gastrula from top to bottom?

-Embryonic Ectoderm- Top layer
-Embryonic Endoderm- Middle Layer
-Embryonic Mesoderm- Bottom layer

8

Embryonic Ectoderm gives rise to what parts of the body?

-Epidermis
-Central and peripheral nervous systems
-Eyes
-Internal Ears
-and as neural crest cells, develops many connective tissues of the head.

9

The Embryonic Endoderm is the source of what parts of the body?

-epithelial linings of the respiratory and alimentary (digestive) tracts
-the glands opening into the gastrointestinal tract
-the glandular cells of associated organs, such as the liver and pancreas

10

The Embryonic Mesoderm gives rise to the most body parts, what are they?

-skeletal muscles
-blood cells and the lining of blood vessels
-all visceral smooth muscular coats
-serosal linings of all body cavities
-ducts and organs of the reproductive and excretory systems
-most of the cardiovascular systems

11

the parts of the trunk formed by the Embryonic Mesoderm?

all connective tissue, including cartilage, bones, tendons, ligaments, dermis, and stroma (connective tissue) of internal organs

12

the thick band of epiblast cells that converge caudally in the midline of the disc on/around the 15th day?

the primitive streak, which has a caudal and cranial end.

13

what is the thickened round area at the cranial end of the bilaminar disc?

Primitive Node

14

The narrow grrove that runs down the primitive streak?

Primitive Groove

15

At the end of the Primitive Groove in the Primitive node is the?

Primitive Pit

16

the appearance of the primitive streak divides the embryo into what directions/part?

-Cranial part
-Caudal part

17

Epiblast cells migrate through the primitive streak, moving into the layer between the ________ and ________.

epiblast and hypoblast
this displaces the hypoblast

18

during the migration of epiblast cells, the cells from the deep epiblast area form?

mesenchyme

19

part of the mesenchyme becomes which embryonic layer?

the middle layer
Embryonic Mesoderm

20

the epiblast cells displaced the hypoblasts to form what layer?

the endoderm

21

the ectoderm is formed from the remaining _______ cells?

remaining epiblast cells

22

what is a Sacrococcygeal Teratoma?

-remaining remnants of the primitive streak
-Gives rise to a tumor
-most common tumor in newborns
-pluripotent cells

23

on the 22-24 day the notochord detahes from the endoderm and retreats into the?

mesoderm
this process changes the notochord into a chord with a canal

24

the Body Mesoderm extends over all of the germ dics except in what two areas?

Porchordal (prechordal) plate- cranial end
Cloacal Plate-Caudal plate

25

the Cloacal plate is at the caudal end of the embryo and forms the?

primitive anus

26

the cloacal membrane/plate disintegrates in the 7th week to form the openings of the?

anus
urinary
genital tracts

27

the functions of the notochord?

-support of growing embryo
-induction of a neural plate
-disappears when vertebrae forms
-small portion persists- nucleus pulposus

28

what is vasculogensis?

formation of vascular channels

29

what is angiogenesis?

formation of vessels

30

what genes regulate intrauterine growth?

H19
IGF2
IGF2r
MASH2