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Flashcards in exam 3 chp 10 Deck (44)
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1

muscle formation is known as?

myogenesis

2

expression of myoD family of muscle specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors is known as?

gene activation

3

Wnts from the bone morphogenetic protein [BMP-4] regulate the beginning of?

myogenesis

4

what genes are important for development in the hypaxial and epiaxcial muscles?

MyoD and Myf-5 genes

5

the dorsal neural tube and surface ectoderm induce the?

dermomyotome

6

the inductive signal of the dermomyotome has been identified as proteins encoded by the _____ gene family.

Wnt gene family

7

the myotome inner layer forms the?

forms the muscles

8

the three classification of skeletal muscles?

1. skeletal muscles
2. smooth or visceral muscles
3. cardiac muscles

9

which class of muscle is derived from the myotomes of somites, mesenchyme of brachial arches, and mesenchyme of limbs?

skeletal muscles

10

during the development of muscles there is a change in the ___________ of fibers. there is a migration of __________. Fusion of successive _____________ may occur.

change in direction of fiber
-(craniocaudal direction)
Migration of muscle
-Latissimus Dorsi
Fusion of successive myoyomes may occur
-Rectus Abdominis

11

also during the development of muscles. the _____________ of the myotome occusr. as well as The _____________ splittting of myotomes and the ____________ of mytomes forms ligaments.

Longitudinal splitting of muscle
-sternohyoid
Tangential splitting of the myotomes
-oblique and transverse muscles of the abdomen
Degeneration of myotomes forms ligaments
-Tensor Fascia Lata

12

what forms the extensor muscles of the vertebral column?

Epimers

13

what gives rise to the muscles of the limbs and body wall?

Hypomers

14

the small dorsal part that is formed from the dorsomedial cells of the somite?

epimere/epiaxial

15

the larger ventral part formed from the migration of the dorsolateral cells of the somite?

hypomere/hypaxial

16

What are the hypomers/hypaxial of the cervical region?

Prevertebrals
Scalenes
Part of trapezius
Part of sternocleidomastoid
Infrahyoid

17

What are the hypomers of the thoracic region?

Intercostal muscles
Transversus thoracis

18

What are the four hypomers of the abdominal region?

Psoas
Quadratus lumborum
External and internal transverse abdominis
Rectus abdominis

19

The nerves of the epitaxy and the hypaxial that innervate the segmental muscles?

Dorsal primary rami
Ventral primary rami
These nerves will remain in their original muscle segment throughout their migration

20

The ________ cause the muscles in the wall of the thorax to maintain their segments.

The ribs

21

Muscles of the head develop from the ___________ of the brachial arches.

Mesenchyme

22

The temporalis, masseter, pterygoid, myelohyoid, anterior belly of the digastric, tensor tempani, and tensor veli palatini are muscle formed from what arch?

These muscles of mastication are formed from the first arch

23

The orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oris, risorius, platysma, front-occipitalis are the muscle of the face formed by which arch?

The second arch

24

The stylo-pharyngeal muscle is formed from which arch?

The third arch

25

The laryngeal, some pharyngeal, palate muscles, part of the sternoclastoid, and part of trapezius are formed from which arch?

The fourth and sixth

26

What is the innervation of the first branchial arch?

Trigeminal nerve (5)

27

What is the nerve innervation of the second branchial arch?

Facial nerve (7)

28

What is the nerve innervation of the third branchial arch?

Glossopharyngeal (9)

29

What is the nerve innervation of the 4th and 6th branchial arch?

Vagus and hypoglossal

30

Limbs buds are made from?

Made from muscular mesenchyme