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Flashcards in Exam 2-2 Deck (268):
1

3 types of muscle

skeletal, cardiac, muscle

2

skeletal muscle ells

long
multinucleated
composed of many myofibrils
is striated--from arrangement of protein fibers in cells
voluntary contraction

3

Muscle cell life

born from merging of undifferentiated cells called myoblasts
once matured--no mitosis

4

Satellite cells

adult muscle stem cells, triggered to divide by injury-- can repair some injured muscles (since muscles can't fix themself--no mitosis)

5

hypertrophy

swelling of individual muscle cells-- happens with exercise

6

sarcoplasmic reticulum

specialized endoplasmic reticulum that can sequester and store Ca.
It stores it in the ER and is will be used to spread signal throughout the muscle cell

7

T-tubules

invaginations of the plasma membrane that transmits the membrane depolarization into the cell

8

sarcoplasm

cytoplasm of a muscle cell

9

sarcoplasmic reticulum

endoplasmic reticulum of a muscle cell-stores Ca

10

Sarcolemma

the plasma membrane of a muscle cell

11

Sarcomere

contractile unit of a muscle cell
is the smallest functional unit of a muscle
consists of thick and thin filaments--myofilaments

1 sarcomere=z line to z line

12

Myosin

Thick filament
Have heads and tails-- the heads are gathered and the tails are wrapped together
have 2 sites: ATP binding site and actin binding sites

13

What are the 2 sites on myosin

ATP site (binds and cleaves ATP-->ADP)
Actin binding site

14

thin filament

Actin, troponin and tropomyosin

15

Tropomyosin

long- string like
hides myosin binding site, preventing myosin from binding to actin

16

Troponin

bound to tropomyosin, binds Ca which triggers a shape change that moves typopmyosin out of the way, revealing the myosin binding site and allowing actin and myosin to interact

17

During contraction, what is in high conc. in the sarcoplasm?

Ca

18

Sliding filament theory

filaments fo not get shorter, they slide across each other, shortening the length of the cell

19

Crossbridges

myosin binds to actin, pulling the actin framework closer together, Z lines get closer together and H and I zones are eliminated.
Requires ATP
Happens multiple times along the actin filament
Sarcomere shortens

20

Excitation contraction

1. AP reaches motor neuron terminal
2. AP opens Ca channels, Ach is released
3. ACh binds receptors of sarcolemma of muscle cell
4. Na channels open
5. Na moves in to muscle fiber causing a small local depolarization
6. If threshold is reached-- a muscle AP occurs
Muscle AP travels along the sarcolemma and down T-Tubules
7. AP on t-tubules excited receptors on sarcoplasmic reticulum-- opening Ca channels
8. Ca is released into sarcoplasm
9. Ca binds troponin causing s shape change, which moves tropomyosin out of the way.
10. Myosin binds to actin-- cross bridge
11. Cross bridge formation triggers a shape change in myosin, cocking head to an abgle, sliding the filaments past each other
12. ADP is released from myosin head, and a new ATP binds and releases the cross bridge
13. Myosin binds to next available actin binding site
14. ATP breaks down to ADP, energy is transfered to myosin head, cocks again and the filaments slide
15. continues as long as intracellular Ca is high, and ATP is available
16. In synapse- AChE is degradding ACh
17. Chem gated Na channels close
18. Ca pump in sarcoplasmic reticulum re-sequesters Ca
19. Removal of Ca from troponin restores blocking of actins binding sites
20. Cross bridge cycling stops, relaxation occurs

21

In muscles-- do we use intra or extracellular Ca?

Intra cellular, while in normal AP in neurons we use extracellular Ca

22

What is ATPs role in filament binding?

ATP binds and releases the crossbridge.

23

Muscle motor units

functionally all the same-- can't contract q/o the others.

Helps control how much of a msucle you need to use-- done by fine tuning the number of motor units

24

Neuromuscular junction overview

Only one NT: ACh
One form of NT clearance: AChE
Only excitatory

25

twitch

A response of a single muscle fiber to a single AP

26

latent period

can be different for different muscle fibers
depend on speed of Ca pump
Slow pump--> Ca stays longer->twitch lasts longer
Fast pump-->Ca removed faster--?twitch ends quickly

27

isotonic contraction

muscle contracts and creates enough force to move a load--> like lifting your keyys
Initiate as isometric contraction until the tension matches the load

28

Isometeri contraction

When you can't move the load. Like pushing a wall thats not going to move no matter how hard you push

29

ATP is muscle contraction

1. ADP-->ATP by creatine phosphate
2. Oxidative phosphorylation of ADP in the mitochondria
3. ADP-->ARP by anaerobic glycolysis in cytosol

30

Creatine phosphate

builds up in muscle
At start of contraction, CP can phosphorylate ADP to make ATP
Conversion is so fast that during intiial contraction, ATP rates barely change, while CP levels drop (aka ATP is being made as fast as its being used)

31

Oxidative phosphorylation/glycolysis for ATP

Glycolysis-- 2 ATP/glucose
OP-36 ATP/glucose-- needs O2

Both are slower than CP mediated ADP, OP is slower than glycolysis

32

myoglobin

can store oxygen for muscles

33

How long does glycogen storage last?What happens when you run out?

lasts for 5-10 minutes. After that circularory system must meet demands. Glycogen sfrom liver is broken down, adter 40 minutes, fatty acids begin to be broken down

34

Central fatigue

your CNS tells you to stop-- deelings of tiredness, psychological factors

35

Peripheral fatigue

factors within muscle cells tell you to stop
includes conduction problems and lactic acid build up, inhibition of cross bridge formation

36

Conduction problems

K+ builds up in the t-tubules, no K+ gradient, no repolarization

37

Lactic acid buildup

lactic acid results from anaerobic glycolysis. It does not effect contractile proteins, but can slow re-sequestration of Ca, leading to prolonged contraction

38

Inhibition of cross bridge formation

an excess of ADP and Pi may inhibit formation od new cross bridges.Impaired full contraction and impaired relaxation may result.

39

How are skeletal muscle fibers classified?

Cross bridge cycling speed, based on ATPase on myosin
How they get most of their ATP, oxidative phosphorylation of anaerobic glycolysis

40

Fast v. Slow fibers

fast fiber cross bridge formation occurs 4X faster than slow fiber
force produced is the same
depends on ATPase

41

Oxidative Fibers

get ATP from oxidative phosphorylation--much more efficient
Requires lots of mitochondria
Myoglobin is the oxygen source
referred to as red fibers

42

Glycolytic Fibers

Gets ATP from glycolysis- less efficient, need more glucose, less oxygen
-few blood vessels
-few mitochondria
-much higher glycogen stores-- since each glucose only gives 2 ATP
WHITE FIBERS

43

Type 1 Muscle

Slow oxidative
-low myosin ATPase, high oxidative capacity

44

Type IIa muscle

Fast oxidative glycolytic
high myosin ATPase, high oxidative capacity, intermediate glycolytic capacity

45

Type IIb

Fast glycolytic
high myosin ATPas, high glycolytic capacity

46

If looking at a dead body, with no ATP where will Ca be found?

In sarcoplasm, muscles will be contracted myosin can't unbind from actin without binding a new ATP

47

If you block ACh in the NMJ what happens?

The cell would never have a graded potential

48

Slow oxidative fibers and fatigue

Slow use of ATP, can generate ATP
Doesn't fatigue easily.
Used in muscles that are always on, back legs etc

49

Fast oxidative fibers and fatigue

Lasts a a while, then fatgues
fast ATP- can contract faster legs

50

Fast glycolytic fibers and fatigue

fast use of ATP minimal ability to replenish ATP, fatigues quickly.

In fingers and hands

51

Motor units

all the same fiber type, controled by one motor neuron.
Proportions of motor units vary based on need

52

Plasticity of skeletal muscle

-fiber type
-mitochondrial concentration
-capacity for glycogen storage
-local capillary concentration
-myoglobin concentration
-size of muscle cell
-concentration of actin and myosin microfilaments
-neural pathways

These changes can be gained OR lost

53

Soreness

exercising beyond capacity
-damage to muscles triggers inflammatory response
-lengthening muscle (going down stairs, lowering weights slowly) produces more soreness

NOT DUE TO LACTIC ACID BUILD UP

54

Cramps

persistent, high frequency AP
Elecytrolyte imbalance
Caused by overexercise, persistant dehydration

55

Changes with endurance exercise

Increased mitochondria
increase in capillary network feeding the muscles
slight decrease in fiber diameter and maximal strength
also leads to associated changes in the cardiovascular and repiratory system

56

Changes with strength exercise

Primarily affects fast twitch fibers--increase in diameter, increased synthesis of actin and myosin, increase in enzymes in glycolysis pathway.
Gain strength, but not endurance-- fatigue rapidly
Sometimes fains in strength without gains in size

57

Poliomyelitis

Polio
A virus that infects motor neurons
90% of cases have no symptoms, 10% milkd disease, 1% paralysis

58

Muscular dystrophy

Genetic or autoimmune defects in costamere protein.
Progressive weakness, inability to walk by age 12 Death by 20-25

59

Atrophy

Use it or lose it
Muscle cell loss by decrease in nerve use, or decreased muscle use

60

Myasthenia gravis

Autoimmune activity against ACh receptors, muscle fatigue and weakness
Therapies:
AChE inhibitors, autoimmune drugs, removal of antibodies from plasma

61

Smooth muscle

no banding pattern
NO TROPONIN
innervation comes from autonomic-- not voluntary
spindle shaped
contract as a sheet
uni-nuclear-- can undergo mitosis and repair
in gut, uterus, blood vessels and pulmonary

62

Role of Ca in smooth muscl

CA binds to and activates calmodulin
Ca-calmodulin activates a kinase
The kinase phosphorylates myosin, activating it
Myosin binds actin and cross bridge cycling occures
as long as Ca is entering the cell, the contraction will occur.

63

Sources of Ca for smooth muscle

Can come from sarcoplasmic reticulum (inracellular) and from extracellular fluid
Smooth muscle cells have voltage gated and chemically gatedCa
There is NO ROLE for Na in smooth muscle contracition
Amount of Ca=amount of contraction

64

Removal of Ca in smooth muscle

removed by ATP dependent pumps
rate is very slow (3+ sec. compared to <1 sec. for skeletal muscle)

65

Smooth muscle gradation and tone

Ca channels only let in enough Ca to activate a portion of the cross bridges
more stimulus=stronger contraction
Can alter how much cystolic Ca is kept inside to maintain tone-- helpful with always on muscles, like sphincters

66

The role of stretch in smooth muscle

Stretch does not effect force possible. Stretch can increase contraction because stretch can open mechanically gated ion channels

67

What do smooth muscle cells contract in response to?

autonomic inputs can be excitatory or inhibitory
-in response to depolarization from a neuron
-spontaneously
-spontaneously depolarize and contract without nueronal input-- waves

68

Pacemaker cells

the tendancy to spontaneously depolarize at regular intervals.
Some smooth muscle cells work this way for regular contraction-- like GI tract

69

Varicosities

string of NT filled bumbs of autonomic axons

70

Factors that indfluence smooth muscle cells

Hormones
--ex. hormonal control over utering contraction
--ex. epinepherine and gut motility
Paracrine signalling
Acidity
O2 availability
Extracellular ion composition

71

Single unit smooth muscle

gap junctions link the cells, many cells contract as a sheet stretching often induces contraction
ex. GI tract(full stomach=contraction), Uterus (braxton hicks), arterioles(high BP)

72

Multiunit smooth muscle

each cell responds on its own, no gap junctions
ex. Arteries, pulmonary system, haid associated muscle

73

Cardiac Muscle

-striated
-troponin AND tropomyosin
-T-tubules and SR
-single nucleated cells, forked
-specialized fused ends called intercalated disks

74

intercalated discs

in cardiac muscle
make stronger, and have gap junctions to quickly pass a contraction
So when one depolarizes, they all depolarize

75

Desmosomes

join cells tightly-- at intercalated discs

76

Gap junctions

allow cytoplasmic flow of ions. So when one cell depolarizes, they all depolarize

77

Contraction in Cardiac muscle

-involves Ca and Na channels
Na channels provide initial depolarizeion (graded potential)
Voltage gated Ca channels open and Ca flows into the cell.
---these are called L-type channels, long lasting depolarization- elongates refractory period
Ca floods cytosol from SR and extracellular fluid
once in it binds to troponin and works the same way as skeletal muscle.
Ca pump redurns Ca to SR and exracellular fluid

78

Initiation of depolarization in cardiac muscle

Specialized cardiac muscle cells have pacemaker potential
These exist at only 2 plasces in the heard
Wave of depolarization spreads down through conducting fibers throughout the heard

79

Does skeletal muscle have striations?

yes

80

does cardiac muscle have striations?

yes

81

does smooth muscle have striations?

no

82

Does skeletal muscle have thick and thin filaments?

yes

83

Does cardiac muscle have thick and thin filaments?

yes

84

Does smooth muscle have thick and thin filaments?

yes

85

Is skeletal muscle control voluntary or involuntary?

voluntary

86

Is cardiac muscle control voluntary or involuntary?

involuntary

87

Is smoothmuscle control voluntary or involuntary?

involuntary

88

What shape are skeletal muscles cells

long and cylindrical

89

What shapre are cardiac muscle cells?

short and chubby

90

What shape are smooth muscle cells?

Spindle

91

Are skeletal muscle cells uni or multi nucleated?

multi

92

Are cardiac muscle cells uni or multi nucleated?

uni

93

Are smooth muscle cells uni or multi nucleated?

uni

94

What is the source of Ca for skeletal muscle?

Intracellular

95

What is the source of Ca for cardiac muscle?

intra and extracellular

96

What is the source of Ca for smooth muscle?

intra and extracellular

97

What is the site of Ca regulation in skeletal muscle?

troponin

98

What is the site of Ca regulation in cardiac muscle?

troponin

99

What is the site of Ca regulation in smooth muscle?

Myosin

100

What is the refractory period duration for skeletal muscle?

very short

101

What is the refractory period duration for cardiac muscle?

very long

102

What is the refractory period duration for smooth muscle?

short

103

What is the contraction control for skeletal muscle?

only somatic motor neurons

104

What is the contraction control for cardiacmuscle?

innervation, autorhythmc, endocrine

105

What is the contraction control for smooth muscle?

innervation, autorhythmic, endocrine

106

What is the effect of K+ channel blocker on NMJ?

Lots of ACh in the synapse

107

What happens if you leave ACh in the synapse?

Prolonged muscle contraction

108

What would adding an Ach antagonist to NMJ do?

no muscle contraction

109

Which type of muscle uses calmodulin?

Smooth

110

Tropic hormones

stimulate other glands to make and release hormones. Usually also trigger growth of the target gland

111

Hormone synthesis

most hormones are built in the cell as large inactive molecules
They are stored in their inactivated state and can be activated before release or activated in the blood or at the target tissue

112

In what ways can endocrine gands be stimulated to release a hormone?

1. Monitor blood and release the hormone in response to a change
2. Neuron stimulates the release of the hormone
3. Controlled by a tropic hormone.

113

Humoral stimulus

When a hormone is released in response to a change in the blood..
Ex. insulin and glucose changes

114

hormones and allosteric inhibition

the presence of a hormone can inhibit the step of a pathway by acting as an allosteric nhibitor of an enzyme. This will turn off a pathway resulting in negative feedback

115

GnRH/testosterone feedback loop

GnRH-->LH--> testosterone. Testosterone then inhibits the release of more GnRH

116

Amines

derived from amino acids
help build thyroid hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine
Are water soluble, so need transport into cells

117

Peptide hormones

larger than amine hormones
built from polypeptides
the majority of hormones are peptide hormones
they are typically water soluble, need transport into the cell

118

steroid hormones

lipid based, built from cholesterol
ex. corisol, aldosterone, tersosterone, estradiol, vitamin D

Are hydrophomic, so need plasma protein transporters, but easily diffure in and out of cells

119

Hyposecretion

When not enough hormone is secreted

120

Hypersecretion

too much hormone released

121

Hyporesponsiveness

not enough reception by target cells
Ex. type 2 diabetes

122

Hyperresponsiveness

More reception by target cells

123

Primary hyposecretion

-damage to gland=less hormone
-enzyme deficiency=less hormone
-dietary deficiency of iodine=less hormone produced

124

Secondary hyposecretion

too little tropic hormone produced/released. Results in reduction of hormone secretion

125

Primary hypersecretion

Endocrine cell tumor=produces hormone out of control

126

Secondary hypersecretion

excressive stimulation by tropic hormones

127

Roles of the hypothalamus

1. influences hormone secretion activity of the anterior pituitary-- with tropic hormones
2. Produces hormones itself
3. Oversees hormone secretion by the adrenal medulla

128

Anterior pituitary

hormone secretion from this is influenced by tropic hormones from the hypothalamus
releases 6 hormones
is regulated through secretion of hypophysiotropic hormones into the hypothalamo-pituitary portal system

129

posterior pituitary

stores hypothalamic hormones, then releases them into the local capillary network

130

Hypothalamus releases corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)...

triggers release of adrenocoticotropic hormone from the anterior pituitary (ACTH)

131

Hypothalamus releases Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)

which releases growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary

132

Hypothalamus releases thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)

which releases thyroid stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary

133

Hypothalamus releases gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)

which releases Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulatin hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary

134

Hypothalamus releases somatostatin (SS)

which INHIBITS the release of GH from anterior pituitary

135

,Hypothalamus releases dopamine (DA)

which inhibits the release of prolactin from the anterior pituitary

136

Thyroid stimualting hormone

anterior pituitary hormone
Is tropic
Stimulates the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland

137

Prolactin

is an anterior pituitary hormone
regulates breast milk production, and is anti-libido released during stress

138

Adreocorticotropic hormone

is an anterior pituitary hormone
Stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce cortisol

139

Growth hormone

is an anterior pituitary hormone
Causes the growth of bones, muscles and most body cells

140

Follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone

anterior pituitary proteins
influence reproductive stuff by regulating hormone synthesis by the gonads

141

What regulates the hypothalamus?

CNS stimulation- stress, environmental influences, NT
Hormone levels in the blood

142

Oxytocin

Posterior pituitary hormone
positive feedback loop for cervical opening in labor and milk let-down in lactation.
plays a role in bonding an social stuff

143

Vasopressin

posterior pituitary protein
aka antidiuretic hormone
constricts smooth muscle cells around blood vessls, increasing blood vessels, increasing blood pressure and decreasing urine output

144

Thyroid gland

butterfly shaped gland in neck
secretes 2 hormones: Thyroid hormone and calcitonin

145

Thyroid hormone

released by thyroid gland
maintains metabolism/body temperature
iodine is an important part of TH production

There are 2 versions of TH: T4 and T3 (based on # of iodine molecules

Production and secretion is regulated by TSH`

146

TH production

TRH (hypothalamus)-->TSH (ant. pit.) --> TH (thyroid gland

TH then negative inhibits TSH and TRH

147

Hypothyroidism

low metabolic rate, weight gain, lethargy, feeling cold

Happens because

148

Goiter

due to low iodine in diet, thyroid can't produce enough TH, but pituitary continues to make TSH

149

Action of thyroid hormone

-increase carb intake from intestine and fatty acid release by horone=more fuel in blood stream
-increase activity of Na/K pumps=increase use of calories and increase of heat

150

Symptoms of hypothyroidism

decrease in overall metabolism
cold intolerance
weight gain
fatigue
loss of concentration

151

Symptomes of hyperthyroidsim

overall metabolism increases
heat tolerance
weight loss
twitchiness
anxiety

152

Calcitonin

produced by thyroid glad
encourages calcium deposition into bone from blood
"calcium to the bone"
release is controlled by blood Ca levels

153

parathyroid hormone

released by parathyroid
encourages less calcium to be deposited in blood
stimulated formation of vt. D
opposes the action of calcitonin
regulated directly by blood Ca levels

154

Viamine

organic compound present in minute amounts in the diet that are essential to metabolism

155

Vit. D3

formed by action of UV light on a cholesterol molecules in the skin

156

Vit. D2

derived from plants

157

Vit. D function

targets the small intestine
increases uptake of Ca
Parathyroid hormone increases synthesis
is the most common deficiency in the US.

plays a role in reducing inflammation

158

Vitamin D and TB

vit. d helps to speed the recovery of TB patients, reducing markers of inflammation
increase in sun, decrease of TB symptoms.

159

Roles of Ca in the body

important in signalling pathways
muscle function
NT release
BONES
cardiac and smooth muscle function

160

Bones

rebuild 20% of our skeleto each year
is a type of connective tissue
Is a collagen matrix upon which calcium salts are deposited
Works as a bank-calcium is deposited and withdrawn as needed

growing bones contain cartilage connective tissue

161

epipheyseal growth plate

proliferating cartilage
bones can't grow, cartilage at growth plates grow, then becomes bone

162

Osetoprogenitor cells

stem cells that become osteoblasts

163

osteoblasts

become new bone

164

osteocytes

mature bone cells in matrix

165

Osteoclasts

large multinuclearclls that eat/reabsorb bone

166

Bone growth

chondroblasts in epiphyseal plate generate new cartilage
osteoblasts at the shaft of the plate convert cartilage to bone

167

Growth rate

childre undergo 2 periods of intense growth
before 2 years, and during puberty
boys enter puberty 2 years later than girls, during puberty boys grow more due to the action of testosterone

168

factors that limit growth

persistent disease
lack of AA, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals
Physical or psychological stress

169

Growth hormone

stimulates maturation and mitosis of chondrocytes
elongates epiphyseal plates, more material for bone conversion

170

acromegaly

growth after plates fuse---just cartilage grows

171

IGF

insulin like growth factors
secreted by liver and osteoprogenitor cells
triggered by GH
autocrine, paracrin and hormonal functions to dive the mitosis of chondrocytes

172

Growth hormone stimuli

only secreted during exercise and 1-2 hours after sleep begins

173

Sex hormones and growth

At low levels: promote growth by increasing GH and IGF1
At high levels: promote ossification directly, cause ossification of epiphyseal plates

174

Testosterone

is an anaboilc steroid
used to increase protein synthesis in muscles
Side effects:
liver damage
prostate cancer
infertility
aggression

175

Cortisol

Antigrowth
inhibits DNA synthesis and bone growth
Use of cortisol in children to precent/treat asthma etc can temporarily stunt growth-- have to take breaks to alow growth catch up

176

Stress and bone formation

high levels of cortisol (released when stressed) can temporarily hault growth

177

Gametes

cells that fuse with other cells to make an embryo

178

gametogenesis

making gametes

179

gonads

organs that produce gametes

180

Male reproductive goals

make gametes, get them to the egg

181

Female reproductive goals

make gametes, prepare place to receive gametes, prepare place to house the developing embryo, get give birth, feed offspring

182

leydig cells

in testes, secrete testosterone

183

sertoli cells

aid in spermatogenesis in semineferous tubules
filter nutrients for developing sperm
bind testosterone and transport it into the lumen
is triggered by FSH, make prosperm paracrine signaling molecules which help sperm mature

184

seminiferous tubules

unbroke ring of sertoli cells
make blood-testes barrier
sperm stem cells at periphery
developing cells b/w sertoli cells are locked into place by tight junctions
fully differentiated sperm at the lumen

185

how many sperm released in 1 ejaculation?

30-300 million

186

Items required for success of sperm

speed, envionmental conditions, direction, adequate digestion of egg coat

187

acrosome

on head of sperm. has enzyme that digests the coating of eggs

188

How does the egg prevent multiple sperm from entering?

once a sperm gets in , there is an exocytosis of the corticol granuales, the contents are released the the zona pellucida hardens so nothing else can pentrate it

189

testosterone functions

required for spermatogenesis
development and maintainance of male reproductive organs
required for maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics
opposes action ot estrogen on breat development
sex drive
muscle growth

190

what impact does endogenous testosterone have?

decrease in GnRH, LH and testosterone

191

production of testosteron

endocrine cells in testes have enzymes to convert:
Cholesterol-->androstenedione-->testosterone
androstenedione- is also found in the adrenal cortex
small amounts of testosterone are converted to estradiol

192

aromatase

converts testosterone to estradiol

193

semen

combination of sperm and secretions from accessory glands
takes 2 weeks to prepare
lives 48-72 hours once in the female reproductive tract

194

testosterone decline

occurs around age 40
slow and steady decline

195

Ovaries

make gametes

196

uterus

houses the fetus

197

fallopian tubes

transports egg to uterus, site of fertilization

198

vagina

entrance/exit to system

199

cervix

"doorway" from vagina to uterus

200

Gamete production

produce oocytes in the ovary during the fetal period
oocytes are encased in follicles
each month a few follicles mature, the one that matures the fastest is the one that releases the egg

201

ovulation

when the egg is released from the follivle and availabel for fertilization

202

corpus luteum

what the follicle is called after ovulation when it remains in the ovary (light body) , if pregnancy does not occur it dies and triggers menstruation
is an active endocrine gland- makes progesterone

203

perimetrium

outer membrane of uterus

204

myometrium

thick smooth muscle layer of uterus-- is most powerful muscle in the body

205

endometrium

lining of the uterus composed of thick connective tissue, which is sloughed off and regrown every 28 days in menstruation

206

Preparing for pregnancy

1. First half of ccyle: maturing an egg
2. ovulation
3. enriching uterine lining for implantation
4. shedding lining if implantationdoes not occueqw

207

which cells release estrogen?

granulosa cells

208

what releases progesterone?

a small amount is made by theca cells, most is made by he corpus luteum

can also be made by the adrenal cortex

209

Progesterone synthesis location

made by corpus luteum and placenta in women, and in the adrenal cortex

210

progesterone functions

maintain uterine lining , water and ion balance, regulation of synaptic activity associated with mood, memory and immune functions, promotes schwann cells,

211

Progesterone and MS

progesterone promotes schwaan cells, so is helpful in relieving symptoms of MS

212

what triggers ovulation?

a surge in LH (which is released by anterior pituitary and controlled by estrogen levels)

213

What do birth control pills do with regard to LH

prevent the surge in LH this preventing ovulation

214

what triggers LH surge?

estrogen peak

215

what role does estrogen have in menstruation?

triggers LH secretion, builds endometrium and prepares for pregnancy

216

what role does progesterone have in menstruation/pregnancy?

progesterone prevents the shedding of the lining

menstruation occures when progesterone levels fall

217

how does progesterone based birth control pills work?

it inhibits LH surge

218

Basic role of FSH in female reproduction

stimulates development of follicles.
There is no role for this in the luteal phase

219

basic role of LH in female reproduction

triggers ovulation
There is no role for this in the luteal phase

220

basic role of estrogen in female reproduction

prepares uterine lining, breasts for lactation

SURGE IN ESTROGEN TRIGGERS THE LH SECRETION

221

basic role of progesterone in female reproduction

maintains uterine lining. Theres is no role for this in the follicular phase

222

How does the body make sure we only have one baby at a time?

Follicular phase and ovulation hormones are inhibited by the corpeus luteum

progesterone inhibits LH and GnRH

223

Mestruation

Corpeus lutum degrades--> decrease in estrogen and progesterone-->prostoglandin secreting in endometrium-->vasoconstriction and uterine contractions= menstruation

224

prostoglandins

triggers vasoconstriction and uterine contractions, released due to decrease in estrogen and progesterone.

Redues blood flow, causing endometrial tissue to die. and contractions trigger sloughing

225

In vitro

grow blastocyte in test tube, then implant it into uterine lining

226

fraternal twins

one egg ovulates from each ovary

227

Fertilization

occurs in fallopian tube
egg divides and develops as it travels to the uterus
if endometrium is primed, it implants and begins to grow.

228

tend and befriend

release oxytocin during stress events

229

oxytocin

promotes the resolution of stress by activating parasympathetic system
promotes bonding and social behavior during stress response to keep track to offspring and find friends

230

male hormanal profile during stress

epinephrine, corisol and testosterone

231

female hormonal profile during stress

epinephrine, cortisol and oxytocin

232

Needs in a stress situation

O2, blood to muscles, glucose

233

What physiologically changes in a stress event

Increase: breathing, hear rate, shift blood flow to skeletal muscles, mobilize glycogen, protein breakdown

Decrease: urine output, shift blood aaway from digestion, decrease inflammation and immunity, decease sex drive, decrease bone growth

234

Stress

real or perceived threats to our homeostasis

235

adrenal glands

pyramid shaped glands above the kidnesy--is the major stress gland

Release aldosterone, cortisol, androgens and epinepherine

236

Adrenal cortex

makes over 25 lipid based steroid hormones-- the corticosteroids

(SALT, SUGAR, SEX)

237

mineralocorticoids

released by adrenal cortex,
are lipid based
regulate minerals/electrolytes (water salt balance)
released by the outer layers

238

glucocorticoids

released by middle section of adrenalcortex
regulate glucose levels in blood
lipid based

239

gonadocorticoids

regulate gonadal hormones (androgens)
made by inner section of adrenal cortex
lipid based

240

Epinephrine

dialiates airways to increase breathing rate
breakdown glycogen in liver/skeletal muscles, and breakdown fat in adipose tissues
shifts vlood away from digestive system-- decreases the need to eat

241

Cortisol

Shifts bloodflow to skeletal muscles
breakdown protein in bone and skeletal muscles and breakdown fat in adipose tissue
turs everything off.
decreases growth of immune system
increases appetite to replenish stores
increase prolactin to decrease sex drive
breakdowns bone
increases growth hormone (in order to break down protein)

242

Hyporthalamic pituitary adrenal axis

Hypothalmus releases CRH-->ant. pit. releases ACTH-->Adrenal cortex releases cortisol

cortisol has negative feedback on the other two

243

Stress and eating acute stress

Epi decreases the need to eat (ex. fen phen )

244

Stress and eating chronic stress

Cortisol increases the need to eat
to replenish energy storage.

245

Chronic stress and cardiovascular system

cort. causus systemic vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure

246

Chronic stress and immune system

Cort. decresases cytokine cross talk and decreases the immune cells, means system is vulnerabel and have increased risk of infection

247

need more glucose

decrease insulin, increase glucagon

248

decrease need to respond to injury

increase beta-endorphin-- is a pain killer

249

decrease need to grow

decrease GH

250

decrease need to pee

increase ADH, increase blood volume-- in case of hemmorrhaging

251

decrease need to have sex

increase prolactin
decrese sex drive
decrease gonadal hormones
decrease fertility

252

Benefits of cortisol

-circadian rhythm
-maintain BP --permissive for epi
-maintain glucose metabolism
brake on the immune system

253

Hyposecretion:Adrenal insufficiency
Causes

decreased cort.
decreased adrenal developmet
decreased enzyme synthesis
damage (addisons disease)

254

need more glucose

decrease insulin, increase glucagon

255

decrease need to respond to injury

increase beta-endorphin-- is a pain killer

256

decrease need to grow

decrease GH

257

decrease need to pee

increase ADH, increase blood volume-- in case of hemmorrhaging

258

decrease need to have sex

increase prolactin
decrese sex drive
decrease gonadal hormones
decrease fertility

259

Benefits of cortisol

-circadian rhythm
-maintain BP --permissive for epi
-maintain glucose metabolism
brake on the immune system

260

Hyposecretion:Adrenal insufficiency
Causes

decreased cort.
decreased adrenal developmet
decreased enzyme synthesis
damage (addisons disease)

261

Hyposecretion:Adrenal insufficiency
Symptoms

weakness,fatigue
decreased appetite and weight
decrease blood presure, decreased glucose
increase skin pigmentation (ACTH in blood is a precursor to melotoin

262

Hyposecretion:Adrenal insufficiency
Treatment

Hydrocortisone or prendisone for life

263

Hypersecretion: Cushing syndrome
Causes

exogenous therapies, increased cort
adrenal tumors (increased cort)
pituitary tumors (increased ACTH and cort)

264

Hypersecretion: Cushing syndrome
symptoms

osteoporosis
decreased muscle mass
odd body fat distribution
hypertension
hyperglycemia
immunosuppression

265

Hypersecretion: Cushing syndrome
Treatment

stop exogenous therapy
surgery

266

prolonged heavy exercise

increase epi and cort
decrease insulin, increase glucagon
increase aldosterone and ADH
increase endorphins
increase prolactin

267

Fasting

increases epi and cort
decrease insulin, increase glucagon
increase aldosterone and ADH

268

Are neuromuscular junctions inhibitory?

No. Only excitatory