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Physiology

How living organisms function
How anatomical structure is suited for function
It is mostly the study of healthy bodies

1

What is an organism divided into?

Organ systems
Organs
Functional units
Tissues

2

What are the 4 types of tissues?

Epithelial, nervous, muscle, connective

3

Homeostatis

Stable internal condition, a dynamic stability
Can tolerate small deviations
Since the environment is constantly changing, homeostatic mechanisms are always acting in compensation
Ex. Body temp, blood sugar etc

4

Feedback systems

Maintain homeostasis by monitoring input
Can be positive or negative

5

Negative feedback systems

Turns a pathway off, usually there to bring us back to homeostasis
Are used to control production, secretion of a chemical product

6

Positive feedback systems

Turns a pathway on, usually takes us closer to homeostasis

Ex mosquito bite: get itchy, you scratch, that spreads the irritant, gets more itchy etc

7

Reflexes

Behavioral responses that are designed to preserve homeostasis (efferent pathway)

8

Local homeostatic responses

Allow individual cells or clusters of cells to change their environment

9

Auto fine signaling

When a cell secretes a hormone that binds to receptors on that same cell, leading to changes within the cell

10

Paracrine signaling

Cell to cell communication where a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells

11

acclimatization

Is reversible
Body can predict what your needs will be
Ex. Gym after 7 days you sweat immediately, prediction of your needs to perform homeostasis

12

Developmental acclimatization

An acclimatization response during a critical developmental period
Ex Andes mountain natives- live in high altitude, your body knows and develop a larger chest and lunches to help homeostasis

13

Circadian rhythms

Controls the sleep wake cycle based in past experiences, and exposure to dark and light.