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Flashcards in Lab Final Deck (79):
0

Metabolic rate

All chemical reactions occurring in the cells of a body at a given time. Includes anabolic and catabolic

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Calorie

The amount of heat needed to raise 1 g of water 1 degree c.

2

Direct calorimetry

Subject is placed in a well insulated sealed chamber surrounded by a water jacket, as body temp increases, the temp of the surrounding water increases.

3

Indirect calorimetry

Used in lab 9. Uses a repirometer. Records the rate at which the individual consumes oxygen

4

RMR

Determined by measuring the o2 utilization by the body converting to the amount of heat produced and factoring in the body surface area.

5

For a balanced diet, how much energy do you get per l of o2?

4.86

6

What are the conditions needed for RMR?

No food for 12 hours
Physically and mentally relaxed
Room where the temp is 65-85f

7

What are the conditions for bmr?

No drugs-- includes caffeine nicotine etc
No high sugar meals for 24 hours
Minimize emotional disturbance
Good nights sleep

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What is the range for healthy RMR?

Within 10% of a predicted RMR

9

Tidal volume

Volume of air inspired or expired with each normal breath
Is around 500ml

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Inspiratory reserve volume (irv)

Extra volume that can be forcibly inspired beyond the normal tidal volume, is around 3000ml. Requires voluntary contraction of respiratory muscles

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Expiratory reserve volume

Amount of air that can be forcibly expired father the end of a normal tidal expiration. Is around 1200ml

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Residual volume

Amount of air remaining in lungs even after the most forceful expiration. Is about 1200ml.

This air provides air in the alveoli to aerate the blood even between breaths and helps the alveoli from collapsing

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Anatomical dead space (vd)

The amount of air that remains in the respiratory passages after each expiration. It fills the outer respiratory passages after inspiration and never reaches the lung tissue. Because it is expired first in the next expiration.

Is around 150ml

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Functional residual capacity

Expiratory reserve volume plus the residual volume.
Is the amount remaining in the lungs at the end of a normal expiration

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Vital capacity

Is the tidal plus irv and rev. Is the maximum amount of air that can be exchanged in a single breath.

16

Total lung capacity

Maximum volume that the lungs can hold with the greatest inspiratory effort is irv+ erv+tidal volume + residual volume

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Minute ventilation

The amount of new air moved into the respiratory passages each minute.

Is equal to tidal volume divided by respiratory rate

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What is a healthy fev1?

80% of vc

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What is a healthy fev3?

95% of vc

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Obstructive lung disease

Increased airway resistance but are within 10% of predicted vc.

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Restrictive lung diseases

Have healthy airway resistance and reduced vc

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Bmr equation

Heat produced / surface area

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%bmr

Measured bmr-standard bmr/standard bmr

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Hydrolysis

Addition of water to breakdown polymers.

25

Carb digestion

Begins with salivary amylase (only 3-5%)
Most occurs in SI with pancreatic amylase

26

Protein digestion

Occurs in stomach and SI
Stomach--pepsins most active at low ph
Further broken down by pancreatic enzymes in the is including trypsin, chemo trypsin and carboxypeptidases

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Fat digestion

Most occurs in the SI via pancreatic lipases
Emulsified via bile (synthesized in liver, stored in gall bladder, and released in response to cck secreted by SI)

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Benedict's test

Starch +salivary amylase--> maltose

(-) blue (means no breakdown)
(+) several colors-- means sugar breakdown

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Blue Benedict's test

Negative. Means starch is present and sugar did not break down

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Green yellow or red Benedict test

Is positive. Means maltose is present and sugar did breakdown

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Lugols test

Starch + salivary amylase --> maltose

Tests for starch

(-) brown = hydrolyzed starch
(+) black = starch is still present

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Black Lugols test

(+) means starch is present ( so no carb breakdown)

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Brown Lugols test

Hydrolyzed starch is present. Digestion has occurred

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Biurets test

Protein + pepsin --> polypeptides
Tests for the presence of peptide linkages
(+)-violet protein is present
(-) no color, pink or blue. Means there has been protein breakdown and less peptide linkages are present.

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Protein digestion components in this lab

Egg whites and pepsin solution

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Violet Biurets test

Positive means there are peptide linkages present and the protein did not break down

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Clear, blue or pink Biurets test

Negative. Means protein has broken down and less peptide linkages are present.

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Litmus test

Lipid + lipase --> fa + glycerol

Tests for presence of acids
(+) pink lipid breakdown occurred
(-) blue no lipid breakdown.

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Lipid breakdown components in this lab

Heavy cream and pancreatin

40

Systolic blood pressure

Higher pressure
Corresponds to ventricular contraction

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Diastolic blood pressure

The smaller number
Corresponds to ventricular relaxation

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Sphygmomanometer

Used to measure blood pressure
Cuff, manometer to read out pressure, inflating bulb to create pressure, exhaust valve.

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Ausculatory method

Detect both systolic and diastolic blood pressure by hearing kortkoffs sounds

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Kortkoffs sounds

Created by blood jetting through the compressed vessel when it opens enough to let blood through

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Palpating method

Blood pulse through the artery is felt.
Only measures systolic pressure. Will be able to feel pulse at the point where cuff pressure = systolic pressure

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Pulse qualities

Rate, rhythmicity, and strength of pulse

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P wave

Atrial depolarization

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Qrs

Ventricular depolarization

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T

Ventricular repolarization

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ECG

Electrocardiogram
Wave of depolarization moves across heart and electrical activity is recorded

51

Myofibrils

Repeating units of thick and thin filaments within each muscle fiber

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Sarcomere

Functional unit of skeletal muscle contraction
Is one repeat of am yo fibrillation

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Thin filaments

Actin, troponin and tropomyosin. Tropomyosin coils around actin and troponin is bound to the coil.

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Thick filament

Myosin. Has long tail and globular heads with binding sites for actin and ATP.

Is energized when bound to ATP hydrolyzed but still bound.

55

What happens in muscle when ca is bound?

Conformational change in e troponin tropomyosin complex. Troponin binds ca tropomyosin moves. Energized ATP can bind if actin

56

Motor units

A single motor neuron and all the muscle fibers that are inner gated y it

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All or none law of a skeletal muscle contractions

All muscle fivers inner aged by a stimulated motor neuron will contract maximally

58

How is skeletal muscle strength increased?

The number of actin and myosin heads that bind will increase or the frequency tht actin and myosin bind and unbind per single action potential should increase.

Or increase the frequency of stimuli

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Minimal stimulus voltage

When a stimulus is strong enough to reach threshold of one motor neuron to fire an action potential. A stronger stimulus will reach threshold of multiple motor neurons recruiting additional motor neurons to produce contraction

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Maximal stimulus voltage

The strength of the stimulus that activates all of the motor units of a muscle.

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Muscle fatigue

Decaying of the strength of contraction. Due to the cessation of electrical activity due to accumulation of k+ and lactic acid and the depletion if ATP.

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Adaptation

When a continuous stimulus of constant strength is applied to a receptor a progressive decrease of responsiveness of the receptor occurs over time. The receptor becomes unresponsive to stimulus of the same type.

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Sensory units

A single sensory neuron and all of the receptors it inner area

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What factors impact the precision to localize stimuli?

-size of receptive field
-number of receptive fields
- density of overlap of sensory units
- density of receptors within a receptive field

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Lens

Directly behind the iris

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What happens to see far away?

Ciliary relax--zonular fibers taught--lens is flat

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What happens to see near

Contract ciliary muscles-- fibers loose--lens convex

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Lens

Can bend to refract rats if light

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Cornea

Transparent front of eye
Important for focus onto the retina

70

Photoreceptors

Convert light energy into a neural signal

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Rods

Activated by low levels of light and detect black and white

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Cones

Activated by bright light and detect color

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Fovea centralis

Region of the retina with the highest concentration if concession but no rods

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Optic disk

Blind spot.

A region that contains no photoreceptors--empty era

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Presbyopia

Age related decline in the ability of the lens to become convex to focus on near objects

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Nearsighted

The eyeball is too long and can focus on near objects but lens focus distant objects IN FRONT OF THE RETINA

AKA MYOPIA

77

Visual acuity equation

d/D
d= distance from chart
D= distance at which the line can be read with normal vision.

78

What does 20/80 mean?

This person can see an object at 20 ft that a normal person can see at 80ft.