Flashcards in Lab Final Deck (79):
All chemical reactions occurring in the cells of a body at a given time. Includes anabolic and catabolic
The amount of heat needed to raise 1 g of water 1 degree c.
Subject is placed in a well insulated sealed chamber surrounded by a water jacket, as body temp increases, the temp of the surrounding water increases.
Used in lab 9. Uses a repirometer. Records the rate at which the individual consumes oxygen
Determined by measuring the o2 utilization by the body converting to the amount of heat produced and factoring in the body surface area.
For a balanced diet, how much energy do you get per l of o2?
What are the conditions needed for RMR?
No food for 12 hours
Physically and mentally relaxed
Room where the temp is 65-85f
What are the conditions for bmr?
No drugs-- includes caffeine nicotine etc
No high sugar meals for 24 hours
Minimize emotional disturbance
Good nights sleep
What is the range for healthy RMR?
Within 10% of a predicted RMR
Volume of air inspired or expired with each normal breath
Is around 500ml
Inspiratory reserve volume (irv)
Extra volume that can be forcibly inspired beyond the normal tidal volume, is around 3000ml. Requires voluntary contraction of respiratory muscles
Expiratory reserve volume
Amount of air that can be forcibly expired father the end of a normal tidal expiration. Is around 1200ml
Amount of air remaining in lungs even after the most forceful expiration. Is about 1200ml.
This air provides air in the alveoli to aerate the blood even between breaths and helps the alveoli from collapsing
Anatomical dead space (vd)
The amount of air that remains in the respiratory passages after each expiration. It fills the outer respiratory passages after inspiration and never reaches the lung tissue. Because it is expired first in the next expiration.
Is around 150ml
Functional residual capacity
Expiratory reserve volume plus the residual volume.
Is the amount remaining in the lungs at the end of a normal expiration
Is the tidal plus irv and rev. Is the maximum amount of air that can be exchanged in a single breath.
Total lung capacity
Maximum volume that the lungs can hold with the greatest inspiratory effort is irv+ erv+tidal volume + residual volume
The amount of new air moved into the respiratory passages each minute.
Is equal to tidal volume divided by respiratory rate
What is a healthy fev1?
80% of vc
What is a healthy fev3?
95% of vc
Obstructive lung disease
Increased airway resistance but are within 10% of predicted vc.
Restrictive lung diseases
Have healthy airway resistance and reduced vc
Heat produced / surface area
Measured bmr-standard bmr/standard bmr
Addition of water to breakdown polymers.
Begins with salivary amylase (only 3-5%)
Most occurs in SI with pancreatic amylase
Occurs in stomach and SI
Stomach--pepsins most active at low ph
Further broken down by pancreatic enzymes in the is including trypsin, chemo trypsin and carboxypeptidases
Most occurs in the SI via pancreatic lipases
Emulsified via bile (synthesized in liver, stored in gall bladder, and released in response to cck secreted by SI)
Starch +salivary amylase--> maltose
(-) blue (means no breakdown)
(+) several colors-- means sugar breakdown
Blue Benedict's test
Negative. Means starch is present and sugar did not break down
Green yellow or red Benedict test
Is positive. Means maltose is present and sugar did breakdown
Starch + salivary amylase --> maltose
Tests for starch
(-) brown = hydrolyzed starch
(+) black = starch is still present
Black Lugols test
(+) means starch is present ( so no carb breakdown)
Brown Lugols test
Hydrolyzed starch is present. Digestion has occurred
Protein + pepsin --> polypeptides
Tests for the presence of peptide linkages
(+)-violet protein is present
(-) no color, pink or blue. Means there has been protein breakdown and less peptide linkages are present.
Protein digestion components in this lab
Egg whites and pepsin solution
Violet Biurets test
Positive means there are peptide linkages present and the protein did not break down
Clear, blue or pink Biurets test
Negative. Means protein has broken down and less peptide linkages are present.
Lipid + lipase --> fa + glycerol
Tests for presence of acids
(+) pink lipid breakdown occurred
(-) blue no lipid breakdown.
Lipid breakdown components in this lab
Heavy cream and pancreatin
Systolic blood pressure
Corresponds to ventricular contraction
Diastolic blood pressure
The smaller number
Corresponds to ventricular relaxation
Used to measure blood pressure
Cuff, manometer to read out pressure, inflating bulb to create pressure, exhaust valve.
Detect both systolic and diastolic blood pressure by hearing kortkoffs sounds
Created by blood jetting through the compressed vessel when it opens enough to let blood through
Blood pulse through the artery is felt.
Only measures systolic pressure. Will be able to feel pulse at the point where cuff pressure = systolic pressure
Rate, rhythmicity, and strength of pulse
Wave of depolarization moves across heart and electrical activity is recorded
Repeating units of thick and thin filaments within each muscle fiber
Functional unit of skeletal muscle contraction
Is one repeat of am yo fibrillation
Actin, troponin and tropomyosin. Tropomyosin coils around actin and troponin is bound to the coil.
Myosin. Has long tail and globular heads with binding sites for actin and ATP.
Is energized when bound to ATP hydrolyzed but still bound.
What happens in muscle when ca is bound?
Conformational change in e troponin tropomyosin complex. Troponin binds ca tropomyosin moves. Energized ATP can bind if actin
A single motor neuron and all the muscle fibers that are inner gated y it
All or none law of a skeletal muscle contractions
All muscle fivers inner aged by a stimulated motor neuron will contract maximally
How is skeletal muscle strength increased?
The number of actin and myosin heads that bind will increase or the frequency tht actin and myosin bind and unbind per single action potential should increase.
Or increase the frequency of stimuli
Minimal stimulus voltage
When a stimulus is strong enough to reach threshold of one motor neuron to fire an action potential. A stronger stimulus will reach threshold of multiple motor neurons recruiting additional motor neurons to produce contraction
Maximal stimulus voltage
The strength of the stimulus that activates all of the motor units of a muscle.
Decaying of the strength of contraction. Due to the cessation of electrical activity due to accumulation of k+ and lactic acid and the depletion if ATP.
When a continuous stimulus of constant strength is applied to a receptor a progressive decrease of responsiveness of the receptor occurs over time. The receptor becomes unresponsive to stimulus of the same type.
A single sensory neuron and all of the receptors it inner area
What factors impact the precision to localize stimuli?
-size of receptive field
-number of receptive fields
- density of overlap of sensory units
- density of receptors within a receptive field
Directly behind the iris
What happens to see far away?
Ciliary relax--zonular fibers taught--lens is flat
What happens to see near
Contract ciliary muscles-- fibers loose--lens convex
Can bend to refract rats if light
Transparent front of eye
Important for focus onto the retina
Convert light energy into a neural signal
Activated by low levels of light and detect black and white
Activated by bright light and detect color
Region of the retina with the highest concentration if concession but no rods
A region that contains no photoreceptors--empty era
Age related decline in the ability of the lens to become convex to focus on near objects
The eyeball is too long and can focus on near objects but lens focus distant objects IN FRONT OF THE RETINA
Visual acuity equation
d= distance from chart
D= distance at which the line can be read with normal vision.