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Flashcards in NT's Drugs, Diseases Deck (25):
1

Neuromodulators

chemicals that may affect post synaptic cells response to NT's, or may affect the synthesis of NTs by the post synaptic cell

2

What breaks down Acetylcholine in the synapse?

acetylcholineesterase

3

Nicotine

agonist for one type of acetylcholine receptor (nicotinc receptors)
Involved in muscle cell activation, and muscle cell overstimulation
There are nicotinc receptors on dopamine releasing cells-makes it addicting.

4

Botox

prevents acetylcholine release (prevents vesicle binding), thereby preventing muscle contraction

5

Alzheimer Disease

-A decrease in the functioning neurons, particularly those that secrete acetylcholine.

-Impacted by genetics and lifestyle factors

6

What causes Alzheimers disease?

A normal cellular protein (amyloid precursor protein) accumulates in synapses, forms protein tangles (amyloid beta tangles) ad causes synapses to be unable to function, so neurons break down.

7

Amyloid precursur protein

a cellular protein, which can accumulate in synapses and form protein tangles that lead to alzheimers

8

Why does alzheimers happen?

-Abormal protein-from genetics
-Abnormal enzyme cleavage of APP
-ineffective clean up--immune

9

What can be done for Alzheimers?

Drug development--these slow progression, but do not reverse symptoms
Early testing of CSF
Lifestyle factors- education, social engagement, exercise over lifetime

10

What breaks down dopamine in the synaptic cleft?

It is broken down by monoamineoxidase (MAO) and is removedby reuptake by a dopamine transporter

11

What roles does dopamine play?

Plays roles in consciousness, mood, motivation, attention, movement, blood pressure, coordination of muscle activity

Is the pleasure NT
reward behvior-- reenforces things that feel good- gambling sex eating etc

perception of beauty

12

Genetic Basis for Addiction

-alteration in the number/quality of dopamine receptors
-fewer receptors, less signaling, need more to get a response

13

Dopamine in developing an addiction

Behavior/substance triggers a dopamine secretion, then you want it again
Tolerance=decrease in the release of dopamine or the concentration of the dopamine receptors

14

Cocaine

is a serotonin/norepinepherine/dopamine reuptake inhibitor
is highly addictive
Pleasure--because of dopamine and serotonin
Energy-- from norepinepherine
Resyts in a long term down regulation of dopamine receptors

15

MDMA/Ecstary

Causes an excessive release of serotonin and dopamine.
-the excessive release causes neurons to down regulate serotonin receptors, leading to later depression

16

Parkinsons

Low dopamine signalling
uncoordinated muscle activity
enhanced perception of pain

17

ADHD

low dopamine signalling
decreased inhibition

18

Schizophrenia

high dopamine signaling

19

Dopamie and Evolution

Increase in meat in diets resulted in increased dopamine signalling. This increased drive, learning and goal oriented behavior-- a shift away from community based existence.
Caused the separation on personalities between homosapiens and hominid ancestors

20

Norepinephrine

Broken down my monoamine oxidase
used throughout the nervous system

21

Serotonin

Is a neurotrasmitter and a neuromodulator

22

How is serotonin cleared from the synapse?

Reuptake

23

What are the functions of serotonin

mediate sensation, alertness, food intake, bone remodeling, libido, depression/mood

24

How do antidepressants work?

Thet are serotonin reuptake inhibitors-- serotonin remains in the synapse, making it longer to signal

25

What is low serotonin release thought to be a cause of?

Depression