Flashcards in NT's Drugs, Diseases Deck (25):
chemicals that may affect post synaptic cells response to NT's, or may affect the synthesis of NTs by the post synaptic cell
What breaks down Acetylcholine in the synapse?
agonist for one type of acetylcholine receptor (nicotinc receptors)
Involved in muscle cell activation, and muscle cell overstimulation
There are nicotinc receptors on dopamine releasing cells-makes it addicting.
prevents acetylcholine release (prevents vesicle binding), thereby preventing muscle contraction
-A decrease in the functioning neurons, particularly those that secrete acetylcholine.
-Impacted by genetics and lifestyle factors
What causes Alzheimers disease?
A normal cellular protein (amyloid precursor protein) accumulates in synapses, forms protein tangles (amyloid beta tangles) ad causes synapses to be unable to function, so neurons break down.
Amyloid precursur protein
a cellular protein, which can accumulate in synapses and form protein tangles that lead to alzheimers
Why does alzheimers happen?
-Abormal protein-from genetics
-Abnormal enzyme cleavage of APP
-ineffective clean up--immune
What can be done for Alzheimers?
Drug development--these slow progression, but do not reverse symptoms
Early testing of CSF
Lifestyle factors- education, social engagement, exercise over lifetime
What breaks down dopamine in the synaptic cleft?
It is broken down by monoamineoxidase (MAO) and is removedby reuptake by a dopamine transporter
What roles does dopamine play?
Plays roles in consciousness, mood, motivation, attention, movement, blood pressure, coordination of muscle activity
Is the pleasure NT
reward behvior-- reenforces things that feel good- gambling sex eating etc
perception of beauty
Genetic Basis for Addiction
-alteration in the number/quality of dopamine receptors
-fewer receptors, less signaling, need more to get a response
Dopamine in developing an addiction
Behavior/substance triggers a dopamine secretion, then you want it again
Tolerance=decrease in the release of dopamine or the concentration of the dopamine receptors
is a serotonin/norepinepherine/dopamine reuptake inhibitor
is highly addictive
Pleasure--because of dopamine and serotonin
Energy-- from norepinepherine
Resyts in a long term down regulation of dopamine receptors
Causes an excessive release of serotonin and dopamine.
-the excessive release causes neurons to down regulate serotonin receptors, leading to later depression
Low dopamine signalling
uncoordinated muscle activity
enhanced perception of pain
low dopamine signalling
high dopamine signaling
Dopamie and Evolution
Increase in meat in diets resulted in increased dopamine signalling. This increased drive, learning and goal oriented behavior-- a shift away from community based existence.
Caused the separation on personalities between homosapiens and hominid ancestors
Broken down my monoamine oxidase
used throughout the nervous system
Is a neurotrasmitter and a neuromodulator
How is serotonin cleared from the synapse?
What are the functions of serotonin
mediate sensation, alertness, food intake, bone remodeling, libido, depression/mood
How do antidepressants work?
Thet are serotonin reuptake inhibitors-- serotonin remains in the synapse, making it longer to signal