Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (57)
What determines the muscle fiber type
neuron that innervates it
what are the 3 types of muscle fibers? Include their speeds of contraction & relationship to fatigue
Type 1-- slow contracting
Type 2a-- fast twitch; fatigue resistant
Type 2b--fast twitch; fatigue sensitive
*As you move from type 1 to 2b, mitochondria # decreases, myosin ATPase activity increases
What are muscle's 5 responses to injury
Muscular dystrophy in dogs has what type of inheritance?
Most common form of MG in dogs; describe the pathogenesis (briefly)
Abs form against acetylcholine receptors
Which clostridial diseases cause:
1) tissue damage/necrosis
2) no tissue damage
1) malignant edema, blackleg, gas gangrene
2) botulism, tetanus
Ideal environment for growth of clostridium in wounds? (2 things)
Blackleg is due to what type of infection with which spp. of clostridium?
latent infection with C. chauvoei
**rancid butter odor**
How does C. botulinum produce its effects? What type of paralysis does it cause?
prevents release of ACh
Most common cause of abscess in:
2) cat-bite wounds
1) T. pyogenes
2) Pasteurella Multocida
Masticatory muscle myositis in dogs is due to immune-mediated destruction of?
2m muscle fibers (masticatory muscles)
Because both these diseases present with muscle atrophy of the masticatory and temporalis muscles in dogs, you must biopsy to differentiate
Masticatory muscle myositis & Polymyositis
Most common location of Rhabdomyosarcoma
trigone region of urinary bladder
The net result of ionophore toxicity that causes the clinical signs?
Ca overload of muscle cells
Which spp. is most sensitive to ionophores? Least?
(pig, dog > sheep. goat > cattle)
White muscle disease is due to deficiency of? What types of lesions would you expect on muscles?
Selenium and/or Vitamin E
lesions are multifocal, multiphasic
With corticosteroid myopathy affects type ___ muscle fibers. We expect CK to be _____ because it causes muscle ______.
2b muscle fibers
expect CK to be normal because it causes atrophy (not necrosis)
How do malignant hyperthermia and exercise-induced collapse differ (2 ways)
1) with EIC muscles are FLACCID; with MH they are rigid
2) EIC animals will spontaneously recover
MH requires immediately cooling therapy
Episodes of muscle weakness, fasiculations, and excessive sweating triggered by stress in horses is indicative of what disease? What type of inheritance does it show?
Autosomal dominant (Impressive bloodline)
Which disease is associated with gradual progressive atrophy of the hindlimbs and tail and occurs primarily in draft horses
Collagen & ground substance give bone its _____ while minerals give bone its ______
Difference btwn bone modeling and bone remodeling
modeling--formation and resorption NOT coupled (young, growing animals)
Bone remodeling= formation and resorption coupled
Rickets and osteomalacia is most often cause by?
Deficiency of PO4 or vitamin D
What dictates where an amputation is done?
When doing amputation, when would leaving excess tissue/structures be indicated?
If you planning to use a prosthesis
Most common protocol for radiation palliative therapy for OSA
consecutive day dosing
Elevation of which enzyme on serum chemistry is a poor prognositc indicator for OSA?
4 most common locations for canine OSA
*AWAY FROM ELBOW, TOWARD KNEE*
MST for canine OSA with:
1) extirpation + chemo
2) amputation alone
3) palliative radiation
2 & 3) 4-6 months
Location of OSA where would be assoc. with a better prognosis and why?
Lower met rate (50% compared to 90%)
How is feline OSA different?
Met rate is much lower and amputation alone can produce good long-term survival
Horses can develop compensatory lameness on the ______ ______ limb due to overloading
diagonal paired limb
Which important structure/area is not blocked by the palmar digital nerve block?
Bruised sole involving the bar is called
Which nerve block would be best for diagnosis of bruised sole?
Pedal osteitis is most common in which breed of horse? Which feet?
Most commonly forefeet
The most common cause of lameness in horses
2 instances when antibiotics would be indicated for tx of sub solar abscess
1) it's a foal or weanling
2) P3 involvement (or joint sepsis)
Most common presentation for a horse with navicular syndrome
chronic bilateral forelimb lameness
T/F: radiographs are an important tool in the diagnosis of navicular syndrome
rads are important for PROGNOSIS only
Most common complication of palmar digital neurectomy?
Most common presentation for fracture of navicular bone
acute to chronic unilateral forelimb lameness
What dose of triamcinolone is toxic to horses and can result in laminitis?
>16mg IM or in joint
A deep digital flexor tenotomy is considered a salvage procedure for horses affected with?
*only pasture sound
Which salvage procedure for a horse with chronic laminitis would allow them to have an athletic career?
Inferior check ligament desmotomy
Classic radiographic finding assoc. with keratoma?
resorption of P3
Puncture wounds in which location can lead to infection of the navicular bursa
near mid-point of frog (or more caudal)
we don't worry about anything more cranial (i.e. point of frog)
What are the 6 types of P3 fxs?
type 1--wing (non-articular)
type 2-- wing, articular
type 3-- down middle (most common)
type 4-- extensor process
As far as side bones are concerned, what is the limiting factor that can lead to lameness?
if they become immobile
What is quittor?
when the lateral cartilages of P3 become infected and necrose
Most important goal of mandibular fx repair?
Tension side of the mandible is?
Craniomandibular osteopathy is assoc. with which breed?
West highland white terriers (Westie jaw)
Contraindications for laser therapy (2)
open growth plates
principles for aqua therapy (5)
what areas are included in a multi-modal approach to rehab? (4)
underlying health issues
nutrition & exercise