Flashcards in Final--Equine Material Deck (45)
Concerning fractures of the second phalanx
1) what are they commonly called
2) what diagnostic modality is contraindicated and why
1) icebag fractures
2) nerve block--would cause horse to use leg and further displace fx
Differentiate high ring bone from low ring bone.
Which is more common?
High ringbone= pastern joint *MORE COMMON*
low ring bone= coffin joint
How do subluxation and luxation vary? Name a common scenario for how each could occur.
subluxation--displacement is dorsal or ventral; foals jumping from vans
luxation--displacement is medial or lateral; horse tears collateral ligaments when stuck in cattle guard
Concerning longitudinal fractures of P1 (proximal phalanx):
1) where do they usually originate
2) most important part of repair
1) begin at fetlock (extend distally)
2) restoring alignment at joint surface
Most common location for dorsal chip fx on P1 (proximal phalanx)?
proximal articular margin
Which type of P1 fracture is assoc. with young standardbreds (<4yr) & is commonly bilateral
Avulsion fractures of caudal-proximal p1
General term that means enlargement of fetlock
1) what does green osslets mean?
2) what is the most common assoc. etiology?
green osslets= radiographic changes of the joint are not present
most commonly due to excessive work at early age
Which intraarticular steroid is indicated for use in high motion joints
What are the 6 types of sesamoid fractures? Which types carry the best prognosis? Worst?
**= best prognosis
^= worst prognosis
Most common location of OCD in in fetlock
dorsal sagittal ridge
T/F: There will always be associated lameness if you find an OCD lesion on the dorsal sagittal ridge of fetlock
radiographic lesions don't always correspond to lameness
Proliferation of the synovial membrane on the _____ aspect of the fetlock joint is termed __________?
It's associated with what type of movement of the fetlock?
chronic proliferative synovitis
Assoc. with chronic/repeated overextension
How can oxytetracycline be used to treat congenital fetlock flexure deformities in foals?
it binds Ca in the muscles--> causes them to relax
What two age groups do acquired fetlock flexural deformities develop? How do the ligaments & physes involved and outcomes differ?
5 months--> involves DDF tendon and rapid growth of distal cannon bone; CLUB FOOT
6-18months--> involves SDF and rapid growth of distal radius; fetlock knuckling
How do thoroughbreds and standardbreds differ in the location of condylar fractures? (cannon bone)
Most common type of cannon bone condylar fracture?
Type 3--complete, displaced
*usually proximally displaced
Bucked shins are more common in what type of scenario and in which leg(s)
young horses being overworked (first season of training);
More common in FL (usually bilateral--inside leg is worse)
What is osteostixis and for which condition is it a plausible treatment?
when you drill holes into bone cortex to stimulate healing
*used for bucked shins
The best treatment for splint exostosis is?
Inflammation and disruption of the suspensory ligament is termed?
What is most common location for it to occur?
proximal to sesamoids
Laceration of ____ tendons is more severe
flexor tendon laceration is more severe than extensor tendon lacerations
Describe the different scenarios you might see with flexor tendon lacerations
If DDF---toe up, fetlock slightly dropped
if SDF-- toe normal; fetlock drops when weightbearing
if SDF & DDF-- toe up; fetlock on or near ground
If SDF, DDF, & suspensory-- Toe up, fetlock on ground
Laceration of the EXTENSOR tendons is more common in which limb?
Rear (MT III)
*long digital extensor
What type of tx is NOT indicated for foals with rupture of common digital extensor?
Surgery--tendon will scar in on its own and lateral digital extensor can take over some function
Two common locations for angular limb deformities to develop (physes)
1) distal radial physis
2) distal cannon (MT III and MC III) physis
If an angular limb deformity is due to ______, it will be easy to manipulate the joints into correct position
weakness of supporting structures
The most common cause of angular limb is?
For surgical correction of angular limbs, on which side of the limb is each of the procedures done
1) transphyseal briding
2) periosteal stripping
On which carpal bone do slab fractures most commonly occur?
The pain//lameness assoc. with chip fractures is typically due to.....
induced synovitis (not the fx itself)
What are your top three differentials for dropped elbow in horse?
radial nerve paralysis
"Sweeny" is a condition that develops due to?
paralysis of suprascapular nerve
Bone spavin most commonly involves which joints?
two most distal hock joints:
1) distal intertarsal
2) tarsal metatarsal
Horses with what condition will classically get MORE sound with work?
Bog spavin refers to?
fluid distension of tibiotarsal joint
Curb refers to
desmitis of the plantar ligament of the hock
*swelling of plantar aspect of hock
Two most common locations for OCD in hock
lateral trochlear ridge
Subcutaneous swelling at the point of the hock is referred to as?
What is thoroughpin and what's the best radiographic view to evaluate it?
swelling (tenosynovitis) of DDF tendon sheath
Skyline view of trochlear groove
Stringhalt can be corrected surgically via transection of which tendon?
lateral digital extensor
Most common location for OCD in horse stifle?
Lateral trochlear ridge of femur
*cysts are on medial femoral condyle
In addition to failure of endochondral ossification, deficiency of what mineral can lead to development of OCD?
**it's necessary for collagen cross-linking in subchondral bone
Upward fixation of the patellar is most commonly due to?
poor muscle condition of biceps femoris and/or quadriceps muscles