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Flashcards in Final--Equine Material Deck (45):
1

Concerning fractures of the second phalanx
1) what are they commonly called
2) what diagnostic modality is contraindicated and why

1) icebag fractures

2) nerve block--would cause horse to use leg and further displace fx

2

Differentiate high ring bone from low ring bone.
Which is more common?

High ringbone= pastern joint *MORE COMMON*

low ring bone= coffin joint

3

How do subluxation and luxation vary? Name a common scenario for how each could occur.

subluxation--displacement is dorsal or ventral; foals jumping from vans

luxation--displacement is medial or lateral; horse tears collateral ligaments when stuck in cattle guard

4

Concerning longitudinal fractures of P1 (proximal phalanx):
1) where do they usually originate
2) most important part of repair

1) begin at fetlock (extend distally)

2) restoring alignment at joint surface

5

Most common location for dorsal chip fx on P1 (proximal phalanx)?

proximal articular margin

6

Which type of P1 fracture is assoc. with young standardbreds (<4yr) & is commonly bilateral

Avulsion fractures of caudal-proximal p1

7

General term that means enlargement of fetlock

Osslets

8

Concerning osslets:
1) what does green osslets mean?
2) what is the most common assoc. etiology?

green osslets= radiographic changes of the joint are not present

most commonly due to excessive work at early age

9

Which intraarticular steroid is indicated for use in high motion joints

Betamethasone

10

What are the 6 types of sesamoid fractures? Which types carry the best prognosis? Worst?

Apical**
Body^
Basilar**
Axial
Abaxial
Comminuted^

**= best prognosis
^= worst prognosis

11

Most common location of OCD in in fetlock

dorsal sagittal ridge

12

T/F: There will always be associated lameness if you find an OCD lesion on the dorsal sagittal ridge of fetlock

False

radiographic lesions don't always correspond to lameness

13

Proliferation of the synovial membrane on the _____ aspect of the fetlock joint is termed __________?

It's associated with what type of movement of the fetlock?

dorsal;

chronic proliferative synovitis

Assoc. with chronic/repeated overextension

14

How can oxytetracycline be used to treat congenital fetlock flexure deformities in foals?

it binds Ca in the muscles--> causes them to relax

15

What two age groups do acquired fetlock flexural deformities develop? How do the ligaments & physes involved and outcomes differ?

5 months--> involves DDF tendon and rapid growth of distal cannon bone; CLUB FOOT

6-18months--> involves SDF and rapid growth of distal radius; fetlock knuckling

16

How do thoroughbreds and standardbreds differ in the location of condylar fractures? (cannon bone)

TB--metaCARPUS

SB--metaTARSUS

17

Most common type of cannon bone condylar fracture?

Type 3--complete, displaced

*usually proximally displaced

18

Bucked shins are more common in what type of scenario and in which leg(s)

young horses being overworked (first season of training);

More common in FL (usually bilateral--inside leg is worse)

19

What is osteostixis and for which condition is it a plausible treatment?

when you drill holes into bone cortex to stimulate healing

*used for bucked shins

20

The best treatment for splint exostosis is?

Rest

21

Inflammation and disruption of the suspensory ligament is termed?
What is most common location for it to occur?

Suspensory desmitis

proximal to sesamoids

22

Laceration of ____ tendons is more severe

flexor tendon laceration is more severe than extensor tendon lacerations

23

Describe the different scenarios you might see with flexor tendon lacerations

If DDF---toe up, fetlock slightly dropped

if SDF-- toe normal; fetlock drops when weightbearing

if SDF & DDF-- toe up; fetlock on or near ground

If SDF, DDF, & suspensory-- Toe up, fetlock on ground

24

Laceration of the EXTENSOR tendons is more common in which limb?

Rear (MT III)

*long digital extensor

25

What type of tx is NOT indicated for foals with rupture of common digital extensor?

Surgery--tendon will scar in on its own and lateral digital extensor can take over some function

26

Two common locations for angular limb deformities to develop (physes)

1) distal radial physis

2) distal cannon (MT III and MC III) physis

27

If an angular limb deformity is due to ______, it will be easy to manipulate the joints into correct position

weakness of supporting structures

28

The most common cause of angular limb is?

Metaphyseal dysplasia

29

For surgical correction of angular limbs, on which side of the limb is each of the procedures done
1) transphyseal briding
2) periosteal stripping

1) convex

2) concave

30

On which carpal bone do slab fractures most commonly occur?

3rd carpal

31

The pain//lameness assoc. with chip fractures is typically due to.....

induced synovitis (not the fx itself)

32

What are your top three differentials for dropped elbow in horse?

radial nerve paralysis
humerus Fx
olecranon fx

33

"Sweeny" is a condition that develops due to?

paralysis of suprascapular nerve

34

Bone spavin most commonly involves which joints?

two most distal hock joints:
1) distal intertarsal
2) tarsal metatarsal

35

Horses with what condition will classically get MORE sound with work?

Bone spavin

36

Bog spavin refers to?

fluid distension of tibiotarsal joint

37

Curb refers to

desmitis of the plantar ligament of the hock

*swelling of plantar aspect of hock

38

Two most common locations for OCD in hock

DIRT
lateral trochlear ridge

39

Subcutaneous swelling at the point of the hock is referred to as?

capped hock

40

What is thoroughpin and what's the best radiographic view to evaluate it?

swelling (tenosynovitis) of DDF tendon sheath

Skyline view of trochlear groove

41

Stringhalt can be corrected surgically via transection of which tendon?

lateral digital extensor

42

Most common location for OCD in horse stifle?

Lateral trochlear ridge of femur

*cysts are on medial femoral condyle

43

In addition to failure of endochondral ossification, deficiency of what mineral can lead to development of OCD?

Copper

**it's necessary for collagen cross-linking in subchondral bone

44

Upward fixation of the patellar is most commonly due to?

poor muscle condition of biceps femoris and/or quadriceps muscles

45

Hunter's bump refers to prominence of which structure

tuber sacrale of pelvis