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Flashcards in exam 2 Deck (81):
1

Pre-opperational learning

from 2 to 6 years; includes language and imagination(in addition to the senses and motor skills of infancy), but logical, operational thinking is not yet possible

2

Conservation

Young Kids have a hard time understanding conservation. They don't see how the same amount of liquid fits in different containers

(the notion that the amount of something remains the same (is conserved) despite changes in its appearance )

3

5 Obstacles to logical operation

Centration
egocentrism
focus on appearance
static reasoning
irreversibility

4

Centration

focusing (centering) on one idea, excluding all others

5

Egocentrism

thinking about things entirely from one’s own perspective

6

Focus on appearance

ignoring all attributes that are not apparent

7

Static reasoning

whatever is now has always been and always will be

8

Irreversibility

the idea that nothing can be undone

9

guilt

blaming oneself for doing something wrong

10

Shame

people feel that others are blaming them

11

Externalizing difficulties

difficulty with emotional regulation that involves outwardly expressing emotions in uncontrolled ways, such as by lashing out in impulsive anger or attacking other people or things -> related to/predict aggression in early childhood

12

internalizing difficulties

difficulty with emotional regulation that involves turning one’s emotional distress inward, as by feeling excessively guilty, ashamed, or worthless
-> related to social withdrawal and depression

13

predictors of Self-esteem

parenting (security, emotional adjustment)
attachment
accomplishments (sense of agency)

14

outcomes of self-esteem

enhanced social and academic
adjustment over time

15

Do children tend to have low or high self esteem?

They tend to have high self-esteem until school

16

Authoritative parenting

the parents set limits but listen to the child and are flexible

17

Authoritarian parenting

high behavioral standards, punishment of misconduct, and low communication
-> further divided into
1) coercion and 2) psychological control

18

Permissive parenting

high nurturance and communication but rarely punishment, guidance, or control

19

What are the 3 main parenting styles according to Baumrind?

Authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting

20

Instrumental aggression:

hurtful behavior that is intended to get or keep something that another person has

21

Reactive aggression:

an impulsive retaliation for another person’s intentional or accidental actions, verbal or physical

22

Bullying aggression:

unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves

23

Stranger Wariness

fear of unfamiliar people, esp when they move too close, too quickly

24

separation anxiety

clinging and crying when a familiar caregiver is about to leave
-normal at age 1, intensifies at age 2

25

When does fear emerge in infants?

9 months

26

core (primary ) emotions

already present in infants, universal and require NO or little social learning, thought to have deep biological roots (evolutionary theory)

27

9 temperament traits by Thomas and chess include

activity level, distractibility, intensity, regularity, sensory threshold, and approach/ withdrawal

28

Synchrony

coordinated interaction between the infant and the caregiver

29

Attachment=

an affectional tie that an infant forms with a caregiver—a tie that binds them together in space and endures over time

30

Secure attachment

Infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of the caregiver

31

insecure-resistent/ambivalent attachment

Infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver’s presence, departure, or return

32

insecure-avoidant attachment

anxiety and uncertainty are evident (internalizing aka internal difficulties , as when
an infant is very upset at separation from the caregiver and both resists and seeks
contact on reunion

33

How do infants show attachment?

proximity-seeking and contact-maintaining

34

Strange situation

a laboratory procedure for measuring attachment by evoking infants' reactions to the stress of various adults' comings and goings in an unfamiliar playroom

35

Secure attachment is more likely if:

-the parent is usually sensitive and responsive to the infants needs
-the infant-parent relationship is high in synchrony
-the infants temperament is "easy"
-the parents aren't stressed about income, other kids, or their marriage
-the parents have a working model of secure attachment to their own parents

36

Insecure attachment is more likely if:

-the parent mistreats the child
-=the mother is mentally ill
-the parents are highly stressed about income, other kids, or their marriage
-the parents are intrusive and controlling
-the parents are active alcoholics
-the children's temperament is "difficult"
-the child's temperament is "slow to warm up"

37

Myelination

axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron

38

Corpus Callosum

a long, thick band of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain and allows communication between them
(a long band of nerve fibers that connect the left and right hemispheres of the brain)

39

Lateralization

Literally, sidedness, referring to the specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain, with one side dominant for each activity. The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body and vice versa.
(the specialization of certain functions by each side of the brain; one side is dominant for each activity)

40

perseveration

is the tendency to persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action for a long time

41

Amygdala

registers emotions, particularly fear and anxiety

42

Hippocampus:

central processor of memory, especially the memory of location

43

Hypothalamus:

responds to the amygdala and the hippocampus to produce hormones
that activate other parts of the brain and body

44

3 things that determine whether stress is good or bad-


1. Extent
2. Duration
3. Whether you have social support of not

45

Primary prevention

actions that change overall background conditions to prevent an unwanted event

46

Secondary Prevention

averting harm in a high-risk situation
(e.g., stopping a car before it hits a pedestrian)

47

Tertiary Prevention

aimed at reducing the harm or preventing
disability after an accident has occurred

48

Child Maltreatment

intentional harm to, or avoidable endangerment of,
anyone under 18 years of age

49

Child Abuse

deliberate action that is harmful to a child’s physical,
emotional, or sexual well-being

50

Child Neglect

failure to meet a child’s basic physical or emotional (or educational) needs

51

PTSD

a delayed reaction to a trauma or shock, which may include hyperactivity and hyper-vigilance, displaced anger, sleeplessness, sudden terror or anxiety, and confusion between fantasy and reality

52

Pre-operational Intelligence

from 2 to 6 years; includes language and imagination(in addition to the senses and motor skills of infancy), but logical, operational thinking is not yet possible

53

Scaffolding

temporary support tailored to a learner’s needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process

54

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

the skills that a person can exercise only with assistance, not yet independently (applies to ideas or cognitive skills, and to more apparent skills)

55

Private speech

talking to oneself out loud or in one's mind

56

Social mediation

a function of speech by which a person’s cognitive skills are refined and extended via both instruction and casual conversation

57

Theory-Theory

children naturally construct theories to explain whatever they see or hear --they develop theories to help them understand and remember

58

Theory or Mind

a person’s theory of what others might be thinking
children must realize that other people are not necessarily thinking the same thoughts as they are
- this is seldom possible before age 4

59

Sensitive period of language development

a time when a certain development is the most likely to happen

60

Effortful control-

the ability to regulate one’s emotions and actions through effort, not simply through natural inclination

61

Emotional regulation-

the ability to control when and how emotions are expressed

62

These parents raise children who become conscientious, obedient, and quiet but not especially happy. Such children tend to feel guilty or depressed, internalizing their frustrations and blaming themselves when things don't go well. as adolescents, they sometimes rebel, leaving home before age 20.

Authoritarian parents

63

These parents raise unhappy children who lack self-control, especially in the give-and-take of peer relationships. Inadequate emotional regulation makes them immature and impedes friendships, which is the main reason for their unhappiness. They tend to continue to live at home, still dependent on their parents in early adulthood.

Permissive parents

64

These parents raise children who are successful, articulate, happy with themselves, and generous with others. These children are usually liked by teachers, peers, especially in cultures that value individual initiative.

Authoritative parents

65

These parents raise children who are immature, sad, lonely, and at risk of injury and abuse, not only in early childhood by also lifelong

Neglectful/uninvolved parents

66

Instrumental aggression:

hurtful behavior that is intended to get or keep something that another person has

67

Reactive aggression:

an impulsive retaliation for another person’s intentional or accidental actions, verbal or physical

68

Bullying aggression:

unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves

69

ADHD

A condition in which a person not only has great difficulty concentrating for more than a few moments but also is inattentive, impulsive, and overactive.

70

middle childhood

the period between early childhood and early adolescence, approximately from age7 to 11

71

Aptitude tests

the potential to master a particular skill or to learn a particular body of knowledge

72

Achievement test

measures of mastery or proficiency in reading, math, writing, science, or any other subject

73

IQ test

measure intellectual aptitude, or ability to learn in school
intelligence was defined as mental age divided by chronological age, times 100—hence the term intelligence quotient, or IQ

74

Flynn Effect

the rise in average IQ scores that has occurred over the decades in many nations

75

Mental retardation

Literally, slow, or late, thinking. In practice, people are considered mentally retarded if they score below 70 on an IQ test and if they are markedly behind their peers in adaptation to daily life.

76

Individual education plan (IEP)


a document that specifies educational goals and plans for a child with special needs

77

Least restrictive environment (LRE)


legal requirement that children with special needs be assigned to the most general educational context in which they can be expected to learn

78

Autistic spectrum disorder

any of several disorders characterized by inadequate social skills, usually communication, and abnormal play, especially:
1) Problems in social interaction and social use of language
2) Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest and activities

79

Specific learning disorders

A marked delay in a particular area of leaning that is not caused by an apparent physical disability, by mental retardation, or by an unusually stressful home environment (genetic & environmental effects?; brain development?)

80

Temperament

inborn (biologically based) differences in emotions, activity, and self-control

Or: …”in style of approach and response to the environment that is stable across time and situations”

originates from genes, but implications for adjustment depend on nurture
(i.e., temperament is epigenetic)

81

goodness of fit

= similarity of temperament and values that produces a smooth interaction between an individual and his or her social context