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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (52):
1

Instrumental Aggression (Proactive)

Perceived as a leader and having a sense of humor (social learning model)

2

Reactive Aggression

Hostile attribution bias and skewed intention perception (aggression frustration model)

3

Classification:

the logical principle that things can be organized into groups (or categories or classes) according to some characteristic they have in common

4

Seriation

The concept that things can be arranged in a logical series, such as the number sequence or the alphabet

5

Like computers, people can:


1) Seek specific units of information
2) Analyze information
3) Express their conclusions

6

Sensory Memory

the component of the information-processing system in which incoming stimulus information is stored for a split second to allow for it to be processed (improves slightly until age 10; remains intact until late adulthood)

7

Working memory

the component of the information-processing system in which current conscious mental activity occurs (improves markedly during middle childhood; function decreases greatly in late(r) adulthood)

8

Long-term memory

the component of the information-processing system in which virtually limitless amounts of information can be stored indefinitely (capacity enormous by the end of middle childhood; remains intact long in life)

9

Gonads

paired sex glands (ovaries in females, testicles in males) that produce hormones and gametes

10

Estradiol

a sex hormone, considered the chief estrogen. Females produce more estradiol than males do

11

Testosterone

a sex hormone, the best known of the androgens (male hormones); secreted in far greater amounts by males then by females

12

Primary Sex Characteristics

the parts of the body that are directly involved in reproduction, including the vagina, uterus, ovaries, testicles, and penis

13

Secondary Sex Characteristics

physical traits that are not directly involved in reproduction but that indicate sexual maturity, such as a man’s beard and a woman’s breasts

14

Body image

an idea of how one’s body looks

15

Anorexia Nervosa

fear of eating and gaining wait; skewed body image

16

Bulimia Nervosa

binge eating and throwing up; potential body image issues

17

Binge Eating

excessive eating; re-occuring eating splurges

18

Orthorexia

4th eating disorder
-over healthy
-over exercise
-tons of supplements

19

invincibility fable

conviction that he/she cannot be overcome or harmed; death will not occur unless destiny allows it e.g., unprotected sex or speed driving

20

imaginary audience

One is at a center stage; belief that others are constantly watching and taking notes of one’s appearance; makes adolescents self-conscious

21

Knowledge base

a body of knowledge in a particular area that makes it easier to master new information in that area

22

3 factors that facilitate increases in the Knowledge Base:

1. past experience
2. current opportunity
3. person motivation

23

Control Processes

mechanisms (including selective attention, metacogniton, and emotional regulation) that combine memory, processing speed, and knowledge to regulate the analysis and flow of information within the information-processing system

24

Metacognition

“thinking about thinking,” or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one’s performance on that task

25

Bilingual education (schooling)

A strategy in which school subjects are taught in both the learner’s original language and the second (majority) language

26

English as a Second Language (ESL)

Children who do not speak English are placed together and given an intensive course in basic English so that they can be educated in same classes with native speakers

27

Charter schools

-a public school with its own set of standards that is funded and licensed by the state or local district in which it is located

28

Private schools

a school funded by tuition charges, endowments, and often religious or other nonprofit sponsors

29

Home schooling

education in which children are taught at home, usually by their parents

30

Culture of Children (child culture)

The particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the set of rules and rituals that characterize children as distinct from adults

31

Social comparison

The tendency to assess one’s abilities, achievements,
social status, and other attributes by measuring them
against those of other people, especially one’s peers

32

Deviancy training

the process whereby children are taught by their peers to avoid restrictions imposed by adults

33

Friendships

Relationships characterized by mutual knowledge,
esteem, affection, and respect (reciprocity, proximity)

34

Peer acceptance

= the extent to which a child is liked by individual peers

35

Aggressive-rejected

rejected by peers because of antagonistic, confrontational behavior

36

withdrawn-rejected

rejected by peers because of timid, withdrawn, and anxious behavior

37

Bullying

repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person

38

What are the 3 stages of ID development?

1. Diffusion
2. Foreclosure
3. Moratorium

39

Diffusion

a lack of commitment to any particular goal or role

40

foreclosure

according to Erikson, a premature, generation oriented ID formation

41

Moratorium

"time out" from identity searching

42

4 identity contents=

1. religious
2. political
3. vocational
4. sexual/gender

43

Pituitary

a gland that, in response to a signal from the hypothalamus, produces many hormones, including those that regulate growth and control other glands, among them the adrenal and sex glands

44

adrenal glands

two glands, located above the kidneys, that produce hormones (including the “stress hormones” epinephrine [adrenaline] and norepinephrine)

45

(HPA axis) hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis

a route followed by many kinds of hormones to trigger the changes of puberty and to regulate stress, growth, sleep, appetite, sexual excitement, and various other bodily changes

46

Formal operational thought

characterized by more systematic logic
and the ability to think about abstract ideas

47

invincibility fable

conviction that he/she cannot be overcome or harmed; death will not occur unless destiny allows it e.g., unprotected sex or speed driving

48

imaginary audience

One is at a center stage; belief that others are constantly watching and taking notes of one’s appearance; makes adolescents self-conscious

49

deductive reasoning

reasoning from a general statement, premise, or principle, through logical steps, to figure out (deduce) specifics— top-down thinking

50

inductive reasoning

reasoning from one or more specific experience or facts to a general conclusion, may be less cognitively advanced than deduction—bottom-up reasoning

51

What is "parasuicide"

Suicide attempt

52

3 consequences of drug abuse include:

1. body and brain are still growing
2. psychological effects
3. social effects