First 2 years-Cognitive Development Flashcards Preview

Developmental Psychology > First 2 years-Cognitive Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in First 2 years-Cognitive Development Deck (19):
1

Stages of sensorimotor --Primary Circular Reactions

Reflexes: sucking, grasping, staring, listening

first acquired adaptations: accommodation and coordination of reflexes

Ex. sucking a pacifier differently from a nipple; attempting to hold a bottle to suck it

2

Stages of sensorimotor--Secondary Circular Reactions

Making interesting events last: responding to people and objects
Ex. clapping hands when mother says "patty cake"

New adaptation and anticipation: becoming more deliberate and purposeful in responding to people and objects
Ex. putting mother's hands together in order to make her start playing patty cake

3

Stages of sensorimotor--Tertiary Circular Reactions

New means through active experimentation: experimentation and creativity in the actions of the "little scientist"
Ex. Putting a teddy bear in the toilet and flushing it

New means through mental combinations" thinking before doing, new ways of achieving a goal without resorting to trial and error
Ex. Before flushing the teddy bear, hesitating because of the memory of the toilet overflowing and mother's anger

4

Dynamic perception

To soothe a baby, focus on movement and change to get their attention somewhere else

5

People preference

Babies prefer human faces

universal principle of infant perception
evident in visual, auditory, tactile,
and other preferences

6

3 aspects that lead to young infants remembering a memory:

-experimental conditions are similar to real life
-motivation is high
-special memories are taken to aid memory retrieval

7

Implicit memory

Memory for routines and memories that remain hidden until particular stimulus bring them to mind (evident in infants)

8

explicit memory

memory that can be recalled on demand

usually verbal and depends on hippocampus, which remains immature until the ages of 5-6

9

Holophrase

a single word can mean different things

Dada?
Dada!
Dada.

10

Naming explosion

A sudden increase in an infants vocabulary, especially in the number of nouns, usually begins around 18 months

11

Babbling

repeating certain syllables

12

Babbling

repeating certain syllables

(even deaf babies babble)

13

3 theories of language development include:

1. infants need to be taught
2. infants teach themselves
3. social impulses foster infant language

14

Theory of language development: Infants need to be taught

-Parents are expert teachers, although other caregivers help
-Frequent repetition is instructive, especially when linked t daily life
-Well-taught infants become well-spoken children

15

Theory of language development: Infants need to be taught

BF Skinner noticed that spontaneous babbling is usually reinforced, a grinning mother appears, repeating, praising, giving attention to the infant


Core ideas:
-Parents are expert teachers, although other caregivers help
-Frequent repetition is instructive, especially when linked t daily life
-Well-taught infants become well-spoken children

16

Theory of language development: Social impulse foster infant language

"Social Pragmatic"

-Language learning is innate--adults need not teach it; Chomsky: language is too complex to be mastered merely through conditioning
-universal grammar--all young children master basic language at about the same age; Language acquisition device (LAD)

17

Theory of language development: Social impulse foster infant language

"Social Pragmatic"
a social-pragmatic theory perceives the crucial starting point to be the social reason for language: communication

Infants communicate in every way they can because we are social beings

18

Theory of language development: Infants teach themselves

-Language learning is innate--adults need not teach it; Chomsky: language is too complex to be mastered merely through conditioning

-universal grammar--all young children master basic language at about the same age; Language acquisition device (LAD)

19

A Hybrid Theory

the integration of all three perspectives… notably in a monograph based on 12 experiments designed by 8 researchers
combines valid aspects of several theories about the emergence of language during infancy