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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (37):
1

Organ reserve

Extra power organs are capable of producing when needed

2

Homeostasis

state of equilibrium maintained by the body's physiological systems

3

allostasis

related to homeostasis, but a longer-term adjustment system in the body

4

Fluid intelligence

'quick‘, flexible
requires efficient working memory
declines with age

5

Crystallized intelligence

reflects cumulative knowledge
reflected in long-term memory functioning
gets better with age

6

Expert cognition

accumulation of knowledge, practice, experience

7

intuition

from rule following to experience guided expectances

8

automaticity

from conscious processes to automatic (implicit/subconscious) processes

9

strategic

strategies for specific tasks are efficient and flexible (strategy compensation!)

10

flexibility

experiencing challenge under atypical situations

11

The social clock

a timetable based on social norms

12

What are the 3 things the social clock are influenced by?

1. Culture
2. Societal (historical) Context
3. SES

13

The "Midlife Crisis"

a period of unusual anxiety, radical reexamination, and sudden transformation that is widely associated with middle age but which actually has more to do with developmental history than with chronological age

14

Big 5 personality traits

1. Extroversion
2. Agreeableness
3. Conscientiousness
4. Neuroticism
5. Openness to experience

15

Ecological Niche

the social context (and lifestyle) one chooses based on personality

16

Geriatrics

traditional medical field specializing on aging

17

Gerontology

multidisciplinary study of aging

18

Demography

Population study

19

All (3) fields contribute to our knowledge of aging population:

Demography
Geriatrics
Gerontology

20

Ageism

= old age equals illness; “age determines who you are”

21

Primary aging

= universal senescence
- influences organ reserve, homeostasis, the immune system

22

Secondary aging

= physical conditions and illnesses that increase with age, but are influenced by health habits; e.g., cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, dementia

23

Compression of morbidity

reduction of sickness before death

24

Wear and tear perspective theory

The human body has a certain duration and get’s
eventually exhausted by ordinary life
(organ reserve and other mechanisms try to fight against this)

25

Genetic Theories

DNA code provides a genetic clock
-Growth and aging process are controlled by hormones, cellular reproduction and repair (genetically based individual differences in growth and longevity)

-Genes provide an inherent maximum life span, but average life expectancy depends on societal factors

26

Cellular aging theory

Aging occurs due to aging and damaging of the cells in our bodies

27

Set Point

= a body weight/calorie intake that the homeostatic processes strive to maintain (healthy feelings of fullness and hunger)

28

Postformal thought

cognitive functioning goes beyond adolescence characterized by increasing capability for abstract and dialectical thought

29

Kohlberg’s theory of moral development

Level 1 (Pre-Conventional - childhood)
1. Obedience and punishment orientation (How can I avoid punishment?)
2. Self-interest orientation (What's in it for me?)

Level 2 (Conventional – adolescence)
3. Interpersonal accord and conformity (Social norms) (The good boy/good girl attitude)
4. Authority and social-order maintaining orientation (Law and order morality)

Level 3 (Post-Conventional – late adolescence/early adulthood)
5. Social contract orientation
6. Universal ethical principles (Principled conscience)

30

4 gateways to attraction:

Physical attraction
Apparent availability
Frequent exposure
Absence of exclusion criteria

31

Frail Elderly

people over age 65 (often over 85) who are physically infirm, very ill, or cognitively impaired

32

Activities of Daily Life (ADL's)

actions that are important to independent living, typically consisting of five tasks of self-care; eating, bathing, toileting, dressing, and transferring from a bed to a chair—the

33

Instrumental Activities of daily life (IADL's)

actions (ex paying bills) that are important to independent living and that require some intellectual competence and forethought. The ability to perform these tasks may be even more critical to self-sufficiency than ADLs

34

Senescense

The process of aging, whereby the body becomes less strong and efficient

35

what are the 4 components of Expert Cognition?

intuition, automaticity, strategy, and flexibility

36

Diathesis-Stress Model

stress interacts with underlying predispositions (genetic, social, or cultural)

37

Social Convoy

a group of people providing protective social relationships - reflected in the ecological niche to some extent