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What is failure of passive transfer? What does failure of passive transfer predispose to the neonate to?

Means the fetus did not absorb as many immunoglobulins as it could have.
It predisposes the neonate to a higher chance of disease


Anti-microbial resistance is a potential public health risk. List 2 ways inappropriate use of anti-microbial could increase resistance issues.

Using medications in the feed
Using medications on an animal when they do NOT necessarily need them


Twins are an example of a fetal cause of dystocia. We can see maternal and mechanical causes of dystocia. What are three mechanisms/causes of dystocia in animals (do not list abnormal presentations or twins)?

Fetus being physically too big
First calf heifer
Cervix - failure to dilate


True or False
Diuretics are a therapy to treat edema and anti-inflammatories are a therapy to treat swelling.



Describe what a "patent urachus" is in neonates?

Hospitalized debilitated neonates
Simultaneous infection of the umbilicus
Foals straining to defecate


True or False
Generally speaking we would expect to see redness and heat with edema but not with inflammation.



Matching: with reference to the stages of labor in our livestock animals. To the list below place A) stage 1 B) stage 2; or C) stage 3 in the blank next to each statement
a. Rupture of the allantochorion. _____
b. Changes in fetal position and posture. _____
c. Cervix fully dilated and continuous with vagina. _____
d. Expulsion of placenta. _____
e. Suckling induces oxytocin release and more uterine contractions. _____
f. Delivery of Fetus. _____

a. B
b. A
c. B
d. C
e. C
f. B


If you suspected a calf was suffering from hypothermia list 3 ways to warm this calf.

Warm milk
Warm environment - move to a closed barn
Energy shot


True or False
Antibiotics work well as a therapy against a viral infection in our livestock.

False, bacterial infections only


Describe appropriate long term colostrum storage and the processing required prior to giving colostrum to a calf/foal.

Freeze - can be kept up to 12 months ideal storage is 6-8 months
Warm up in 110 degrees F water, wait 10-15 minutes then administer.
Microwave is possible but will denature the colostrum


Discuss the signs/symptoms (age of onset) of calf scours.

Decreased nursing
0-4-6 weeks


Discuss the treatment of calf scours.

Fluids - IV, SubQ, or Oral
Extreme - Antibiotics


Discuss the prevention of calf scours.

Adequate colostrum at birth
Clean environment


Discuss the management of calf scours.

Calve heifers in a separate location
Quarantine all calves & dams with diarrhea
Manage the environment


Beef or Dairy
Which type of cow has the most concentrated colostrum?



List three reasons Biosecurity strategies are important in animal health management.

Decrease the chances of disease outbreak
Healthier animals
Better profits


Carcass disposal is an important consideration in your biosecurity plan. List and describe 2 ways animal carcass can be disposed of?

Composting - risk of disease spread, land availability, number of animals
Burial - mass depopulation, environmental concerns, Local jurisdictions.


During the "recovery" phase of an emergency preparedness plan list three considerations.

Record keeping
Possible changes for future emergencies
Check the animals


Place foal or calve next to the following statements based on which species is most likely to be associated with the described statement:
a. Premature placental separation (Red Bag): _____
b. Dystocia tends to be uncommon: _____
c. Cryptosporidia diarrhea disease: _____
d. Cotyledon form od placentation: _____
e. Neonatal Isoerthrolysis: _____
f. Rota and Corona viral vaccine: _____

a. foal
b. foal
c. calf
d. calf
e. foal
f. calf


In the context of visitor risk assessment on your farm place A) low risk, B) moderate risk, or C) high risk next to the following statements:
a. Does not own and/or care for livestock: _____
b. Travels to foreign countries with animal contact in those countries: _____
c. Does not wear clean or protective clothing: _____
d. Does not travel outside of the United States: _____
e. Limited travel outside of the United States but no animal contact: _____
f. Wears sanitized shoes or boots. One pair of clean overalls per site: _____

a. A
b. C
c. C
d. A
e. B
f. A


List one infectious and one non-infectious disease which could result in abortion of animals.

Non-infectious: Lack or nutrition or Extreme Stress
Infectious: Brucellosis


We have a ewe diagnosed with viral OPPV mastitis and a very sore inflamed udder. Would we want to administer Banamine (anti-inflammatory) or Penicillin (Antibiotic).

Banamine (anti-inflammatory)


Oxytetracycline is in the pharmaceutical class of Antibiotics or Anti-inflammatory.



What does biosecurity mean to you?

Taking the extra precautions needed to ensure disease is not spread.


Describe the difference between over the counter (OTC) and prescription drugs.

Over the Counter (OTC): can be purchased and administered by anyone. This can be used on any animal that is showing the symptoms or needs the medication.

Prescription drugs: the medication must be prescribed by a licensed veterinarian. This medication is for specific uses and specific animals


As animal managers why be concerned with chemical residues in meat and milk products? (list two)

Chemical residues in milk/meat can ruin the overall product making the end product unsellable

Chemical residues in milk/meat can cause harm to others or potentially infect other meat/milk


What disease condition are we trying to improve when we administer Penicillin? Banamine?

Penicillin: Bacterial Infection

Banamine: Anti-inflammatory


In reference to using the S.O.A.P acronym for working up an animal issue define:
a. S
b. O
c. A
d. P

a. S: Subjected Data; history

b. O: Objective Data; TPR, Lab data

c. A: Assessment (of items/cases); Differential Diagnoses

d. P: Plan; Further diagnostic, Treatment


What do you examine during a Physical Exam?

Check for Inflammation
Mucous Membranes
Check for Bodily discharges


What do you examine during a Visual Exam?

Systematic approach
Record Findings
Observe animals from a distance
Observe other members of the herd