Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (37)
Define Innate immunity
Non-specific, does not alter with repeated exposure
Define Adaptive immunity
Specific, improves with each successive exposure to the same pathogen
any molecule that is recognized by the adaptive immune elements
mediates secondary effects and destroys the pathogen
How does geography and weather affect the occurrence and incidence of disease?
different locations have different incidences of disease,
warm and moist climates are a common place for bacteria and viruses to live and grow
During a physical exam one need to evaluate the mucous membranes of an animal. List 2 different colors the mucous membranes might be and what is telling us about the health of the animal.
Pink = normal
Blue = not enough oxygen in the blood
White = anemic
List 6 ways infectious agents can be transmitted from a sick animal to a healthy animal.
Vertical - Animal A to Offspring (milk, in-vetro)
Horizontal - Animals coming in contact with infected animal (aersol)
Secretions - vaginal
Describe how vectors are involved in disease transmission. List two common vectors in disease transmission.
Without proper sanitation disease can spread from animal to animal
Mosquitos, Fleas, and birds carry infectious diseases that can be passed on to other animals
List the four physical signs/symptoms of inflammations.
Swelling of area
Warm to the touch
Define incubation period
the period of time when an animal has a disease, but there are NO symptoms or signs of having the disease and it can still transmit the disease
Horse or sheep derived serum
Passive immunization; immediately protective
Inactivated bacterial toxin
requires 10-14 days to develop active immunity
Give two examples of why a vaccine might fail to provide protective immunity.
The animal has already been infected with the pathogen
Denatured vaccine - UV light, heat, etc.
List 4 infectious agents
Discuss the "External Defenses", of the skin and GI tract in preventing disease.
Skin = 1st barrier, prevents bacteria or viruses from entering the body
GI tract = flushes out, preventing disease
What is a "carrier animal"
an animal that is infected with the disease, but shows no signs or symptoms
Discuss the difference between vertical disease transmission and horizontal disease transmission. Give an example of each.
Vertical: passes from animal A to offspring ( in vetro, milk, colostrum)
Horizontal: passes from animal to animal based on contact (aersol - animal comes in contact with infected animal)
List two properties of modified live virus (MLV) vaccine.
Needs less boosters
Better/ quicker protection
List two properties of killed vaccines
Can NOT cause disease
Needs boosters to activate adaptive immunity
List four Non-infectious cause of disease
Age - young vs. old
Stress - crowding
Housing - ventilation
As an animal manager, describe the "visual exam", of an animal
Any visible problems
Secretions, where, color
Intramuscular: within the muscle
Subcutaneous: right under the skin
Oral: given orally
Intranasal: inside the nose
List four important considerations before vaccinating an animal
Area of administering
Sex: pregnant or not
True or False
A pathogen is a microorganism or substance capable of causing disease
True or False
Protein, blood or other organic material can weaken or inhibit the product activity of a cleaner/disinfectant
True or False
A vaccine is a chemical produced by a microorganism that has the ability to dilute solutions to inhibit microbial growth or kill microorganisms