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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (37)
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1

Define Innate immunity

Non-specific, does not alter with repeated exposure

2

Define Adaptive immunity

Specific, improves with each successive exposure to the same pathogen

3

Define Antigen

any molecule that is recognized by the adaptive immune elements

4

Define Antibody

mediates secondary effects and destroys the pathogen

5

How does geography and weather affect the occurrence and incidence of disease?

different locations have different incidences of disease,

warm and moist climates are a common place for bacteria and viruses to live and grow

6

During a physical exam one need to evaluate the mucous membranes of an animal. List 2 different colors the mucous membranes might be and what is telling us about the health of the animal.

Pink = normal
Blue = not enough oxygen in the blood
White = anemic

7

List 6 ways infectious agents can be transmitted from a sick animal to a healthy animal.

Vertical - Animal A to Offspring (milk, in-vetro)
Horizontal - Animals coming in contact with infected animal (aersol)
Oral
Urine/feces
Secretions - vaginal
Blood Contact

8

Describe how vectors are involved in disease transmission. List two common vectors in disease transmission.

Without proper sanitation disease can spread from animal to animal
Mosquitos, Fleas, and birds carry infectious diseases that can be passed on to other animals

9

List the four physical signs/symptoms of inflammations.

Swelling of area
Red
Painful
Warm to the touch

10

Define incubation period

the period of time when an animal has a disease, but there are NO symptoms or signs of having the disease and it can still transmit the disease

11

Define Antitoxin

Horse or sheep derived serum
Passive immunization; immediately protective

12

Define Toxoid

Inactivated bacterial toxin
requires 10-14 days to develop active immunity

13

Give two examples of why a vaccine might fail to provide protective immunity.

The animal has already been infected with the pathogen
Denatured vaccine - UV light, heat, etc.

14

List 4 infectious agents

Virus
Bacteria
Protozoa
Fungi

15

Discuss the "External Defenses", of the skin and GI tract in preventing disease.

Skin = 1st barrier, prevents bacteria or viruses from entering the body

GI tract = flushes out, preventing disease

16

What is a "carrier animal"

an animal that is infected with the disease, but shows no signs or symptoms

17

Discuss the difference between vertical disease transmission and horizontal disease transmission. Give an example of each.

Vertical: passes from animal A to offspring ( in vetro, milk, colostrum)

Horizontal: passes from animal to animal based on contact (aersol - animal comes in contact with infected animal)

18

List two properties of modified live virus (MLV) vaccine.

Needs less boosters
Better/ quicker protection

19

List two properties of killed vaccines

Can NOT cause disease
Needs boosters to activate adaptive immunity

20

List four Non-infectious cause of disease

Age - young vs. old
Stress - crowding
Housing - ventilation
Nutritional imbalances

21

As an animal manager, describe the "visual exam", of an animal

Body score
Any visible problems
Lameness
Secretions, where, color

22

Define IM

Intramuscular: within the muscle

23

Define SQ

Subcutaneous: right under the skin

24

Define PO

Oral: given orally

25

Define IN

Intranasal: inside the nose

26

List four important considerations before vaccinating an animal

Age
Area of administering
Sex: pregnant or not
History

27

True or False
A pathogen is a microorganism or substance capable of causing disease

True

28

True or False
Protein, blood or other organic material can weaken or inhibit the product activity of a cleaner/disinfectant

True

29

True or False
A vaccine is a chemical produced by a microorganism that has the ability to dilute solutions to inhibit microbial growth or kill microorganisms

False

30

True or False
Sterilization is a form of physical disinfection that will destroy all pathogens

True