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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (34)
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Briefly explain the causes and chain of events (pathogenesis) that leads to, "Acute Rumens Lactic Acidosis" (i.e. ration, changes in the rumen, etc.)

changing feed quickly
"grain overload"
pH falls to 4-5.5
destroying papillae
liquid increases in the rumen
build up of gas


Describe the pathogenesis of "pregnancy toxemia" (ketosis) in sheep. Include when we expect this disease to occur and list 3 clinical signs we might see with this disease.

negative energy balance during late gestation
stress/ environment
multiple fetuses

weight loss


Laminitis occurs when inflammation develops between the sensitive and insensitive _____ of the foot.



List 4 ways of preventing pregnancy toxemia in sheep

reduce stress
increase feed ration
monitor around late gestation & early lactation
fresh clean water provided


List two treatment options for abomasa displacement (either right or left) and briefly describe each method.

Roll cow - rolling the cow over
Surgery intervention - incision between 11th & 13th rib, manually correcting abomasum, usually stitch to wall
left occurs more frequently


Which is a false statement with regard to septic laminitis in cattle?
a. associated with metabolic disorder
b. severe lamented symptoms
c. associated with concomitant infectious disease, i.e. mastitis, metritis
d. rotation of the pedal bone

a. associated with metabolic disorder


Which of the following is most important in preventing LDA?
a. provide lots of room so cows do not traumatize each other
b. adaptation to a high concentrate diet
c. provide plenty of free salt
d. provide plenty of fresh water

b. adaptation to a high concentrate diet


Which is a true statement concerning hypocalcemia in sheep?
a. diet and proper calcium will prevent disease
b. muscular weakness and anorexia are symptoms of hypocalcemia
c. can occur pre and post-partum
d. all of the above

d. all of the above


Which is true with regards to bronchopneumonia?
a. invasion via pulmonary tree
b. characterized by anterior ventral lesions and lung sounds
c. final manifestation of BRD complex
d. all of the above

d. all of the above


Which is not a true statement about pregnancy toxemia in sheep?
a. often females are in excessive body weight
b. affected females are carrying a single lamb
c. results from negative energy balance during late gestation
d. concurrent disease may predispose ewe to pregnancy toxemia

b. affected females are carrying a single lamb


Which is not considered a sequelae to shipping fever?
a. pericarditis
b. pleuritis
c. laminitis
d. lung abcessation

c. laminitis


True or False
Coliform mastitis causes the most common form of aseptic laminitis.



List 3 symptoms of mastitis and specify if they are abnormalities of the udder or of the milk.

red swollen teets - udder
watery milk - milk
blood in the milk - milk
chunks in the milk - milk


"Milk Fever", in lactating dairy cows is caused by a low/normal/high (choose one) calcium levels in the blood shortly after parturition which can lead to: (list a symptom) _____.



Place contagious or environmental next to each pathogen to define its mode of transmission:
a. Mycoplasma species: _____
b. S. uberis: _____
c. E. coli: _____
d. S. sureus: _____
e. S. dygalactiae: _____
f. S. agalactiae: _____
g. Klebsiella species: _____

a. Contagious
b. Environmental
c. Environmental
d. Contagious
e. Environmental
f. Contagious
g. Environmental


List 3 mastitis prevention measures.

clean dry environment
clean, strip, & dip practices
random checks of possible high scc


With respect to cattle what sinus frontal/maxillary (choose one) might be open during dehorning and set up a sinus infection? An upper premolar tooth root abscess might infect which sinus frontal/maxillary (choose one) resulting in a unilateral nasal discharge?

Sinus frontal


Fill in the following statements with 1. Newborn lamb (birth to 7days) 2. lamb/kids (1-6 weeks) 3. weaned lamb/kid (>8 weeks) 4. Adult sheep/goat (>1 year)
a. Castration and tail docking: _____
b. Start creep feeding: _____
c. Pasteurella pneumonia: _____
d. Coccidia diarrhea: _____
e. Caseous Lymphadenitis: _____
f. E. coli/ viral diarrhea: _____
g. CD&T vaccine booster: _____
h. CAE and OPP: _____
i. Chlamydia lameness: _____
j. Camphylobactor abortion: _____

a. 1/2
b. 2
c. 1
d. 2
e. 4
f. 1
g. 2/3
h. 4
i. 4
j. 4


Compare "foot rot"' between cattle and sheep. (at least 5)

cattle: more extensive to treat, cause bigger problems such as lamenesses, contagious
sheep: easier to treat, not as common, contagious


Place Aseptic or Septic next to the following statements:
a. Most common form of laminitis: _____
b. Varying levels of symptoms often subclinical: _____
c. Associated with concomitant disease such as mastitis: _____
d. Symptoms often more severe: _____
e. Often associated with dietary changes: _____

a. Aseptic
b. Aseptic
c. Septic
d. Septic
e. Aseptic


Using proper nomenclature for Llamas, a _____ is a young llama 4-6 months of age. A weaning to adult llama is called a _____. A castrated male llama is called a _____.



Llamas born during the winter months can suffer from Winter Baby Syndrome. What vitamin is lacking in these youngsters? List two ways this syndrome can be prevented.

Vitamin D
Provide supplement
Adequate light from outside


With respect to Body Condition Score in sheep; judges level of fullness over the _____ area and across the _____. Generally, check _____ times per year. Animals are considered most productive at the BCS of _____



Discuss 3 therapies for treating foot rot in sheep.

Foot Bath


One benefits without harming the other is _____



_____ requires a single host

Direct life cycle


The time from infection of definitive host to the production of parasite offspring is _____.

Pre-patent period


_____ is where sexual reproduction of a parasite occurs.

Definitive host


_____ is required to complete a developmental phase in the parasites life-cycle, excluding sexual reproduction.

Intermediate Host


_____ requires greater than one host.

Indirect life cycle