Exam #2: Cartilage Flashcards Preview

Cell & Tissue Biology > Exam #2: Cartilage > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam #2: Cartilage Deck (29):
1

Hyaline Cartilage

- Most common type of cartilage
- "Glassy" appearance
- Fine & delicate collagen fibrils
- Also called articular cartilage; allows free movement between articulating bones

2

Elastic Cartilage

- Collagen & Elastic fibers

3

Fibrocartilage

- Thick bundles of collagen

4

Where is Hyaline (articular) cartilage found?

- Where it maintains a lumen: Trachea, Nostrils, Bronchi, Larynx
- Articular surface of bone: Femur, Costochondral Joints, Sternocostal Joints
- Epiphyseal Plates

5

Mesenchyme

Embryonic connective tissue that has the potential to differentiate into different types of tissue

6

Chondroblast

- Mesenchymal cells that retract their processes & become more rounded
- Synthesize ECM
- Monitor the ECM & synthesize as needed

7

Chondrocyte

- A Chondroblast that has completely surrounded itself in ECM & undergoes division
- Continue to synthesize ECM (Interstitial Growth)

8

Isogenous Groups

Genetically uniform cells that arise from one parent cell

9

Perichondrium

- Membrane that surrounds cartilage
- Maintains the fitness of cartilage
- Derived from mesenchyme that has differentiated into fibroblasts

10

How many layers does the perichondrium have?

Two:

1) Outer
2) Inner

11

Outer Layer of the Perichondrium

- Fibrous layer that is protective & supportive
- Contains fibroblasts that synthesize collagen
- Also contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, & nerves

12

Inner Layer of the Perichondrium

- Cellular layer that allows for cartilage growth
- Contains chondrogenic cells that become chondroblasts & later chondrocytes
- NO blood vessels or nerves

13

Interstitial Growth

Growth/expansion from within cartilage

14

Appositional Growth

Growth from the surface of cartilage

15

In what two locations is cartilage not covered by perichondrium?

1) Articular surface of bone
2) Epiphyseal plates

16

When does interstitial growth occur?

- Embryonically & prenatally
- At the articular surface of bone

17

What type of cartilage growth is more common

- Appositional
- Appositional growth occurs on the surface of existing cartilage throughout life

18

Where are chondrogenic cells located?

- Chondrification Center
- Inner Layer of Perichondrium

19

What is in the matrix of hyaline cartilage?

- Type II Collagen
- Proteoglycans
- Glycoproteins
- Extracellular Fluid (which hydrate glycosaminoglycans)

20

Proteoglycans of Hyaline Cartilage

- Bottle brush morphology that contain a core protein & GAG (hydrated)
- Hyaluronan/ Hyaluronic Acid

21

What is the capsular matrix?

Matrix immediately surrounding each chondrocyte

Contents:
- Proteoglycans
- Glycoproteins
- Hyaluronan
- Type VI Collagen

22

Territorial Matrix

- Matrix father from the chondrocyte
- Pale blue/pink color
- Lower concentration of proteoglycans than capsular matrix

23

Interterritorial Matrix

- Matrix further out than the territorial matrix
- Paler blue because it contains a more dilute concentration of molecules (proteoglycans)

24

Properties of Hyaline Cartilage

- Avascular
- NO nerve fibers
- Matrix resists forces & compression between articular surfaces of bone

25

Where is elastic cartilage found?

- Auricle
- Epiglottis
- Auditory Tubes

26

Characteristics of Elastic Cartilage

- Larger chondrocytes than hyaline cartilage
- Elastic fibers in territorial & interterritorial matrix
- Yellow instead of blue appearance

27

Fibrocartilage

- Dense collagenous connective tissue
- Chondrocytes form columns squeezed between collagen bundles

28

Where is fibrocartilage located?

- Articular disc in TMJ
- Intervertebral Discs
- Pubic Symphysis

29

Osteoarthritis

- Degenerative Joint Disease
- Articular surface of bone degenerates & exposes underlying bone
- Caused by dehydration of glycosaminoglycans that happens with age