Exam #2: Nerve Flashcards Preview

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1

Neuron

Basic structural & functional unit of the nervous system

2

What type of neuron has an angular cell body?

Multipolar

3

What type of neuron has an ovoid cell body?

Bipolar

4

What type of neuron has a spherical cell body?

Pseudo-unipolar

5

Perikaryon

Cell body

6

Multipolar Neuron

- Most common type of neuron in the body
- Euchromatic nucleus (protein synthesis is constant)
- Dark nucleolus
- Nissil bodies

7

Nissil Bodies

Stacks of rER that look like clumps

8

Microtubules

Skeleton of the neuron

9

Neurofilaments

Muscles of the neuron b/c of contractile properties

10

Axon Hillock

- Proximal end of the axon
- Funnel-shaped
- Pale staining b/c lacking rER
- Contains microtubules & microfilaments

11

Lipofuscin

- Old degenerated plasma membrane that cannot be fully degraded by lysosomes & accumulates in the cytoplasm
- Accumulates with age

12

Neuromelanin

Byproduct of DA synthesis (Substantia Nigra)

13

Dendrites

Increase the receptive surface area of the neuron

14

Terminal Bouton

Swollen dilated portions of the axon in with presynaptic terminals

15

Initial Segment

Part of the axon where the nerve terminal is generated

16

Myelin

- Increases conduction velocity
- Insulates axons

17

Does the axon contain rER?

NO!

18

Anterograde Transport

- Flow of substances away from the cell body
- Kinesin micotubule motor protein
- Slow= No ATP
- Fast= ATP

19

What substances are transported via slow anterograde transport?

- Tubulin
- Actin
- Neurofilament proteins

20

Retrograde Transport

- Flow of substances from the axon terminal to the cell body
- Dynein mitrotubule motor protein
- Fast Transport only (ATP)
- Viruses & toxins

21

What substances are transported via fast retorgrade transport?

- sER
- Vesicles
- Mitochondria
- Amino Acids
- Sugars
- Nucleotides
- Ca++

22

Bipolar Neuron

- Associated with the special senses (vision, hearing, balance, smell)
- Dendrite in the periphery
- Axon terminates in brainstem

23

Pseudo-unipolar

- Cell body is located in sensory ganglia
- Axon terminal is in the brainstem
- E.g. Cranial Nerves

24

Afferent

Sensory (toward)

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Efferent

Motor (away)

26

Astrocytes

- Start shaped with astrocytic feet that cover the surface of capillaries
- Form the BBB
- Form scar tissue in response to a lesion
- Monitor ionic & chemical composition of the CSF

27

Microglia

- Phagocytic cells of the nervous system
- Derived from monocytes

28

Astrocytoma

- Most common type of brain tumor
- Arises from astrocytes
- Deforms ventricles

29

Ependymal Cells

Type of neuroglia that lines the ventricles

30

Ependymoma

- Tumor of the 4th ventricle that compresses the surrounding structures
- Rare type of tumor that arises from ependymal cells