Flashcards in Exam #4: Neoplasia Deck (31):
Neoplasia vs. Cancer
Cancer= malignant tumor i.e. malignant neoplasm
Benign tumor that is fibrous or developed connective tissue
Benign tumor of hyaline cartilage
Benign tumor of glands/ glandular structures
Benign tumor of newly formed blood vessels
Benign tumor of lymphoid tissue
Benign epithelial tumor of the skin
Benign tumor of the mucosa
Malignant tumor derived from mesenchymal connective tissue
Malignant tumor derived from epithelial cells
Mesothelioma & Melanoma
Two malignant tumors that don't follow the "oma" suffix rule ("oma"=benign, usually)
Tumor derived from more than one germ layer (may be benign or malignant)
Characteristics of Malignant Cells
1) Anaplasia or undifferentiated
2) Pleomorphism or cells & nuclei of variable size/ shape
3) Hyperchromatic/ basophilic nuclei
4) Large nucleoli
5) Tripolar, quadpolar, or multipolar mitotic spindles
6) Loss of polarity
Pathways of Metastatic Spread
1) Direct seeding of cavities or surfaces
2) Lymphatic spread
4) Perineural invasion & spread
Characteristics of Benign Tumors
- Well differentiated
- Progressive & slow growth
- No metastasis
Characteristics of Malignant Tumors
- Erratic growth that may be slow or rapid
What cancers have the highest incidence among men & women?
1) Glandular (prostate-men, breast-women)
What cancers have the highest mortality?
2) Glandular (prostate & breast)
What is the most common cancer among men?
Describe the pathology of prostate adenocarcinoma.
- Majority arise in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland; in the posterior
- Cancer suppressor genes lost early
- p53 mutations occur late
- Loss of E-cadherin is required for metastasis
Where do most prostate cancers metastasize?
Serum Markers for Prostate Cancer
- PSA (prostate-specific antigen)
- PSAP (prostate serum acid phosphatase)
Where are most breast cancers found & what type of cancer are they?
- Upper lateral quadrant
What is the most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide?
Where do most lung cancers originate?
Primary, secondary, or tertiary bronchi
Which two lung cancers are associated with smoking?
1) Squamous cell carcinoma-- men
2) Small cell carcinoma
Which two lung cancers are not associated with smoking?
1) Adenocarcinoma-- women
2) Large cell carcinoma
Which type of colonic adenoma architecture is typically more malignant?
Sessile (vs. Pedunculated)
What are the most common sites for colon cancer?
1) Cecum/ Ascending Colon
2) Sigmoid Colon/ Rectum
3) Transverse/ Descending Colon
Are right-sided or left-sided colon cancers more common? Why?
- Transverse colon is excluded from calculations; thus, descending colon+ sigmoid + rectum>cecum & ascending colon