Exam #4: Neoplasia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #4: Neoplasia Deck (31):
1

Neoplasia vs. Cancer

Neoplasia= tumor
Cancer= malignant tumor i.e. malignant neoplasm

2

Fibroma

Benign tumor that is fibrous or developed connective tissue

3

Chondroma

Benign tumor of hyaline cartilage

4

Adenoma

Benign tumor of glands/ glandular structures

5

Hemangioma

Benign tumor of newly formed blood vessels

6

Lymphoma

Benign tumor of lymphoid tissue

7

Papilloma

Benign epithelial tumor of the skin

8

Polyp

Benign tumor of the mucosa

9

Sarcoma

Malignant tumor derived from mesenchymal connective tissue

10

Carcinoma

Malignant tumor derived from epithelial cells

11

Mesothelioma & Melanoma

Two malignant tumors that don't follow the "oma" suffix rule ("oma"=benign, usually)

12

Teratoma

Tumor derived from more than one germ layer (may be benign or malignant)

13

Characteristics of Malignant Cells

1) Anaplasia or undifferentiated
2) Pleomorphism or cells & nuclei of variable size/ shape
3) Hyperchromatic/ basophilic nuclei
4) Large nucleoli
5) Tripolar, quadpolar, or multipolar mitotic spindles
6) Loss of polarity

14

Pathways of Metastatic Spread

1) Direct seeding of cavities or surfaces
2) Lymphatic spread
3) Hematogenous
4) Perineural invasion & spread

15

Characteristics of Benign Tumors

- Well differentiated
- Progressive & slow growth
- No metastasis

16

Characteristics of Malignant Tumors

- Undifferentiated
- Erratic growth that may be slow or rapid
- Metastasis

17

What cancers have the highest incidence among men & women?

1) Glandular (prostate-men, breast-women)
2) Lung
3) Colorectal

18

What cancers have the highest mortality?

1) Lung
2) Glandular (prostate & breast)
3) Colorectal

19

What is the most common cancer among men?

Prostate adenocarcinoma

20

Describe the pathology of prostate adenocarcinoma.

- Majority arise in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland; in the posterior
- Cancer suppressor genes lost early
- p53 mutations occur late
- Loss of E-cadherin is required for metastasis

21

Where do most prostate cancers metastasize?

Lumbar Spine

22

Serum Markers for Prostate Cancer

- PSA (prostate-specific antigen)
- PSAP (prostate serum acid phosphatase)

23

Where are most breast cancers found & what type of cancer are they?

- Upper lateral quadrant
- Adenocarcinoma

24

What is the most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide?

Lung cancer

25

Where do most lung cancers originate?

Primary, secondary, or tertiary bronchi

26

Which two lung cancers are associated with smoking?

1) Squamous cell carcinoma-- men
2) Small cell carcinoma

27

Which two lung cancers are not associated with smoking?

1) Adenocarcinoma-- women
2) Large cell carcinoma

28

Which type of colonic adenoma architecture is typically more malignant?

Sessile (vs. Pedunculated)

29

What are the most common sites for colon cancer?

1) Cecum/ Ascending Colon
2) Sigmoid Colon/ Rectum
3) Transverse/ Descending Colon

30

Are right-sided or left-sided colon cancers more common? Why?

Left-sided
- Transverse colon is excluded from calculations; thus, descending colon+ sigmoid + rectum>cecum & ascending colon

31

Describe the staging of colon cancer.

TIS= Intramucosal tumor
T1= Tumor penetrated submucosa
T2= Tumor penetrated muscle layer
T3= Complete penetration of muscle layer