Flashcards in Exam #2: Ethical Issues Deck (25):
a personal standard of what's right and wrong, good and bad in a situation
the reasoned analysis and disciplined inquiry of relationships underlying the moral code of a particular group
actual scientific process
What's ethics distress?
acting in a manner that is contrary to personal and professional values
Name the 10 ethical principles
standard of best interest
the freedom to make decisions about one's own body without the coercion or interference from others
the obligation to be fair to all people
treat everyone equally
patient must be fully informed and know all risks vs. benefits of all treatments
doing good will towards another
harms and benefits are balanced, leading to a beneficial outcome
protection from harm
"do no harm"
ex: chemotherapy. May kill cancer cells yet still cause patient significant pain/stress b/c of intervention
right to be protected against intrusive contact from others
maintaining secrecy of patient info
"code of conduct"
faithfulness or promise-keeping
requires a decision be made from a disinterested, dispassionate, consistent viewpoint, with full info available and consideration of future consequences
patient has their own set of values
Standard of best interest
making decisions on patient's behalf based on known values
What are the 4 purposes of the code of ethics?
inspire members to be ethical
sensitize members to ethical issues
enforce rules on group members
protect society (from people who are unethical in the profession)
Ethical Decision Making Process (6 steps)
1. clarify ethical dilemma
2. gather additional data
3. identify options
4. make a decision (patient should always be decision maker, unless unable to do so)
nursing role or employment position
acting on the behalf of the patient
be prepared for personal consequences of patient advocacy
Ethical issues in Nursing (8 things)
1. informed consent
2. allocation of resources
3. reproductive technology
4. provision of healthcare to children
5. end-of-life decisions
6. quality vs quantity
7. impaired colleagues
8. academic dishonesty
patient has to be fully informed of all details, benefits, options, risks
patient must be legally competent to maintain consent
--expressed consent: patient gives consent
--complied consent: healthcare provider will provide complied consent on the belief that this is what the patient would want
Allocation of resources
may be related to resources such as IV pumps, or organs needing to be transplanted
may not have sufficient resources to provide to everyone who needs them
sometimes allocation resources can be related to shortage of staff/nurses
can be related to access to healthcare
AI: do we allow multiple contributions to stay in a geographical area or allowed to be shipped across the US?
Selective Termination of Pregnancies after In vitro Fertilization: sometimes multiple fertilized eggs are implanted in the hope that one or two survive. But sometimes 6-8 fertilized embryos survive
Stem cell research
Provision of Healthcare to Children
Do we allow parents to make certain decisions knowing that it could result in the death of their child? (ex: refusing chemo)
What about divorced parents w/ equal custody? What happens if they disagree on treatment? Whose wishes do you follow?
Should parents be informed of all treatments of their children?
--ex: 14 or 15 yr old comes into clinic w/ STI. Do you inform parents?
When is the appropriate time to stop providing care?
--ex: DNR is an example of this ethical issue
You're legally bound by a nurse practice act in your state to report an impaired colleague