Exam #2: Ethical Issues Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #2: Ethical Issues Deck (25):
1

What's morality?

a personal standard of what's right and wrong, good and bad in a situation

2

What's ethics?

the reasoned analysis and disciplined inquiry of relationships underlying the moral code of a particular group

actual scientific process

3

What's ethics distress?

acting in a manner that is contrary to personal and professional values

4

Name the 10 ethical principles

autonomy
justice
veracity
beneficence
nonmaleficence
privacy
confidentiality
fidelity
ideal observer
standard of best interest

5

Autonomy

the freedom to make decisions about one's own body without the coercion or interference from others

"self determination"

"advanced directives"

6

Justice

the obligation to be fair to all people

treat everyone equally

7

Veracity

truth-telling

patient must be fully informed and know all risks vs. benefits of all treatments

8

Beneficence

doing good will towards another

harms and benefits are balanced, leading to a beneficial outcome

9

Nonmaleficence

protection from harm

"do no harm"

ex: chemotherapy. May kill cancer cells yet still cause patient significant pain/stress b/c of intervention

10

Privacy

right to be protected against intrusive contact from others

11

confidentiality

maintaining secrecy of patient info

HIPPA regulations

"code of conduct"

12

Fidelity

faithfulness or promise-keeping

13

Ideal observer

requires a decision be made from a disinterested, dispassionate, consistent viewpoint, with full info available and consideration of future consequences

patient has their own set of values

14

Standard of best interest

making decisions on patient's behalf based on known values

15

What are the 4 purposes of the code of ethics?

inspire members to be ethical
sensitize members to ethical issues
enforce rules on group members
protect society (from people who are unethical in the profession)

16

Ethical Decision Making Process (6 steps)

1. clarify ethical dilemma
2. gather additional data
3. identify options
4. make a decision (patient should always be decision maker, unless unable to do so)
5. act
6. evaluate

17

Patient Advocacy

nursing role or employment position
acting on the behalf of the patient
be prepared for personal consequences of patient advocacy

18

Ethical issues in Nursing (8 things)

1. informed consent
2. allocation of resources
3. reproductive technology
4. provision of healthcare to children
5. end-of-life decisions
6. quality vs quantity
7. impaired colleagues
8. academic dishonesty

19

Informed consent

patient has to be fully informed of all details, benefits, options, risks
patient must be legally competent to maintain consent

--expressed consent: patient gives consent

--complied consent: healthcare provider will provide complied consent on the belief that this is what the patient would want

20

Allocation of resources

may be related to resources such as IV pumps, or organs needing to be transplanted
may not have sufficient resources to provide to everyone who needs them
sometimes allocation resources can be related to shortage of staff/nurses
can be related to access to healthcare

21

Reproductive Technology

AI: do we allow multiple contributions to stay in a geographical area or allowed to be shipped across the US?

Selective Termination of Pregnancies after In vitro Fertilization: sometimes multiple fertilized eggs are implanted in the hope that one or two survive. But sometimes 6-8 fertilized embryos survive

Surrogate motherhood

Stem cell research

22

Provision of Healthcare to Children

Do we allow parents to make certain decisions knowing that it could result in the death of their child? (ex: refusing chemo)

What about divorced parents w/ equal custody? What happens if they disagree on treatment? Whose wishes do you follow?

Should parents be informed of all treatments of their children?
--ex: 14 or 15 yr old comes into clinic w/ STI. Do you inform parents?

23

End-of-life decisions

When is the appropriate time to stop providing care?
--ex: DNR is an example of this ethical issue

24

Impaired colleagues

drinking, high...

You're legally bound by a nurse practice act in your state to report an impaired colleague

25

Academic dishonesty

If you cheat in college, does it mean you're going to be a bad nurse?

Academic dishonesty in the clinical setting can include lying about patient care
--if you lie in clinical setting, you WILL be expelled from university and won't be allowed to graduate w/ your degree