Exam #4: Future of Nursing Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #4: Future of Nursing Deck (45):
1

In 2011, how many people were in the world?

6.9 billion

Up from 2.8 billion in 1955

2

Health of infants and children dependent on status of ___ in society.

Women

3

Do negative traditional practices, violence, and exploitation of girls continue?

Yes

4

Is family planning a personal right?

Yes

5

Food supply has doubled in the last ___ years.

40 years

6

Adult literacy rates increased by ____% since 1970.

50%

7

Child mortality decreased by more than ____% in children less than 5.

50%

8

Infant mortality in 2011?

41.6/1,000

9

Access to antenatal care: ____% in developed countries.

65%

10

____% of children are immunized.

80%

11

Rural setting

75% have safe water
34% have adequate sanitation

12

Life expectancy is ____ years.

67.2 years

13

By ____, several infectious diseases will be eliminated or significantly reduced.

2025

Inf. Dis. such as polio, leprosy, hepatitis B

14

____% of people consume ____% of energy.

23%; 75%

15

____ women die from pregnancy and childbirth (2008).

343,000 women

16

Increase in diseases related to higher ____ lifestyle choices.

Socioeconomic (SES)

17

Is mental health illness a concern?

Yes

18

Global Statistics: HIV/AIDS

39 million people living with HIV/AIDS
2.1 million children
30 million deaths
Young people account for 40% of all new adult cases
1st cause of death in Africa
4th cause of death worldwide

19

How many people were living in the US in 2010?

300 million people

20

US Statistics: median age; number of women vs men

Aging population, median age - 36.9

Number of women > number of men

21

US Statistics: People over 65

People over 65:
--10% are poor
--women and ethnic groups higher poverty
--5% in nursing home

22

US Statistics: Population rates, ethnic mix

Population increasing most in West and South
~50% live in 41 metropolitan areas
Some stabilization in rural areas
Ethnic mix of US changing

23

US Statistics: Children under 18, parents, and grandparents

Children under 18:
--2 parent households: 69%
--1 parent households: 27%
--neither parent: 4%

Most parents work outside of home

4 million live with grandparents

24

US Statistics: Pregnancy

Overall pregnancy rate decreasing
Births to unmarried women: 33%
Teen pregnancy decreased
Pregnant teens choose to remain single
Abortions decreased by one-third

25

US Statistics: Economics

Economic welfare of nation unstable

Median US income $50,054 (2011)
--decreasing

50% of poor are under 18 or over 65
--our most vulnerable populations

26

US Statistics: Poverty

Lack of health care to poor and medically indigent

744,000 homeless

Poverty rate 15.1% (2010)

1 in 7 Americans short of food (2010)

27

Health of our Nation: Life expectancy

up in 8 years in past 50 years

Males: 74.1 years
Females: 79.5 years

Whites tend to live longer than African Americans

Being born in a lower SES has been related to shorter life expectancy (seen through telomeres on chromosomes)

28

Health of our Nation: mortality and leading causes of death

Infant mortality decreased

Morbidity/mortality disparity in ethnic groups (asthma, diabetes, HIV, CVD, cancer)

Leading cause of death: CVD

2nd leading cause: cancers

Overall US heath ranked 30th

29

Health of our Nation: STDs

19 million new cases per year
Chlamydia rates increasing
--majority of cases seen in 15-19 year olds
Gonorrhea and syphilis rates stable
65 million in US live with incurable STD
--ex: HIV/AIDS and herpes
Need to deal with issue openly and honestly

30

Healthy People 2020

Science-based, 10-year national objectives for improving the health of all Americans

Initiated in 1979

Updated every 10 years to focus on current needs to keep society healthy and live long lives

31

Overarching Goals of Healthy People 2020

Attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death

Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups

Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all

Promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages

32

Foundational Health Measures

General health status
--looking at life expectancy, prevalence of chronic diseases

Health-related quality of life and well-being
--looking at physical, emotional, mental, and social functioning of people in US

Determinants of health
--looking at what makes people healthy and others unhealthy

Disparities
--looking at race/ethnicity, sex, age, disability, SES, geographic location

33

Technological Advances

Diagnosis and treatment
Information management
Supplies and services
Structural design
Mass communication

34

Education Trends in US

Type of students
Curricular developments
Tuition increases
Part-time enrollment

35

Women's Rights Movement

Changes for improvement slow
International support difficult to achieve

Glass ceiling remains:
--women make 78 cents to every $1 made by men
--African American women make 68 cents
--Hispanic women make 60 cents

36

Labor and Industry

Decline in unions
Increased part-time positions
Increased legislation to promote basic employee guarantees
Commencement of nursing unions

37

Consumer Revolution

Public's request to better services
Consumer activists
Increased self-care, health promotion, illness prevention
Patient Bill of Rights (President Clinton; didn't pass through Congress)
Women's Health Movement
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)

38

Trends in Healthcare

1983, Prospective Payment System (PPS)
--Diagnostic Related Groups (DRGs)

Hospitals expand outpatient settings
--skilled nursing facilities
--urgent care centers
--surgicenters
--home care services

Patient dumping
--EMTALA law in 1989

Use of helicopters
Merging of hospitals
Advertising
Declining freedom of choice
Universal access
Joint commission
Telehealth
Electronic health records
Individualized care based on genetics

39

Managed Care

Organizational structure between insurers and providers (HMO)
Primary care providers
Potential Problems:
--lack of full information shared
--limiting treatment options
--least expensive choices encouraged rather than best treatment options

40

Health (Medical) Home Model

Team used health care delivery model
Goal - maximize health outcomes
Potential outcomes
--improved access to care
--increased preventative care
--reduced errors and costs through coordinated care
--improved quality and patient satisfaction

41

Self-Care

self-monitoring
self-assessment
health promotion activities
support groups
internet

42

Alternative/Complementary Health Care

Over 40% of patients use alternative health care
Over 45 billion dollars annually spent in US on alternative health care
#1 reason why people use alternative health care: pain (looking for ways to manage it/treat it)

Herbal therapy
Chiropractors
Massage
Acupuncture
Homeopathy

43

Societal challenges for nurses

Aging population
Poverty
Cultural diversity
Urbanization
Environment
Unhealthy lifestyles

44

Healthcare challenges for nurses

US rank on quality outcomes
Lack of access to healthcare
Economic instability
Cost of healthcare
Healthcare reform

45

Challenges for Nursing

Nursing shortage
Entry into practice
Autonomy
Increasing technology
Changing practice settings and patient population
Healthcare policy
--responsibility of ever registered professional nurse