Exam #2: Regulation of Blood Pressure II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #2: Regulation of Blood Pressure II Deck (24):
1

What is the NTS?

Nucelus tractus solitarius=
- Bilateral structure
- Receives all input from sensory receptors
- Sends projects to cardio-inhibitory center & vasomotor center

2

What is the RVLM?

Rostroventral Lateral Medulla
- Vasoconstrictor center
- Sympathetic outflow stops here on its way out of the spinal cord

*Excitation leads to vasoconstriction via the SNS

3

What is the CVLM?

Caudoventral Lateral Medulla
- Vasodilator center
- Inhibits the RVLM

*Excitation leads to vasodilation by inhibiting the RVLM

4

What two nuclei form the cardio-inhibitory center? Which division of the ANS are these two nuclei associated with?

1) Dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DNMV)
2) Nucleus ambiguus

PNS; thus, excitation leads to slowing the heart rate

5

Draw the overview of the reflex arcs.

N/A

6

Outline the steps in the PNS reflex arc in response to an increase in HR.

1) Increased heart rate
2) Sensory input
3) NTS
4) DMNV & NA
5) Vagus
6) Decreased HR

7

Outline the steps in the SNS reflex arc.

1) Sensory input
2) NTS
3) CVLM
4) RVLM
5) IML
6) Sympathetic Chain
7) Effector

8

Where are sensory receptors located?

1) Aorta (pressure and oxygen saturation)
2) Carotid arteries (pressure & oxygen saturation)

Baroreceptors detect changes in pressure
Chemoreceptors detect changes in oxygen saturation

9

What are the reflexes that control blood pressure?

1) Arterial baroreflex
2) Cardiopulmonary baroreflex
3) Chemoreflex

10

What are the characteristics of the arterial baroreflex?

Activated by HIGH pressure
Sensors are in the carotid sinus & aortic arch
Mechanosensitive
Short-term

11

What are the characteristics of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex?

Activated by LOW pressure i.e. low volume
Sensors in the atria & pulmonary vessels
Mechanosensitive

12

What are the characteristics of the chemoreflex?

Central & peripheral receptors
Chemosensitive (O2, Co2, & pH)

- Peripheral input changes sympathetic tone & vasoconstriction
- Central also leads to changes in sympathetic tone/ vasoconstriction BUT also changes hemodynamics in the brain i.e. CO to brain (arteriole resistance)

13

Draw the arterial baroreflex in regards to the SNS & an increase in blood pressure.

N/A

1) Stretch vessel wall
2) Increase BR firing
3) Signal to NTS (via vagus or glossopharyngeal)
4) Inhibition of vasoconstrictor center & activation of cardioinhibitory center
5) Vasodilation of vessels, decrease HR, decrease contractility

14

Draw the arterial baroreflex in regards to the PNS & and increase in blood pressure.

N/A

1) Increased blood pressure sensed
2) Efferents stimulate NTS
3) DMNV & NA activated
4) Increased vagal outflow
5) Decreased heart rate
6) Decreased CO

15

What happens to the arterial baroreflex in HTN?

Baroreflex resetting

16

Draw the chemoreflex arch.

N/A

1) Decreased arterial blood pressure
2) Decreased O2, increased CO2, & increased H+ sensed
3) Increased CR firing
4) Signal to CNS
5) Activation of vasoconstriction center
6) Vasoconstriction of blood vessels

Note that the brain has its own chemoreceptors that will affect these.

17

Draw the Cardiopulmonary reflex.

N/A

1) Decreased blood volume
2) Decreased stretch on atria
3) Increased firing to CNS

18

Resp oscillations in blood pressure

asdf

19

How is blood pressure regulated in the long-term?

Kidneys

20

How do the kidneys regulate blood pressure?

asdf

21

What is pressure diuresis?

asdf

22

What is pressure natriuresis?

asdf

23

Draw the renal output curve.

N/A

24

Draw the systemic renin-angiotensin system.

N/A

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