Exam #6: Basal Ganglia Function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #6: Basal Ganglia Function Deck (31):
1

Define akinesia.

Lack of movement

2

Define chroea.

Abnormal brief, random, twitch-like involuntary movement (dance-like)

3

Define bradykinesia.

Slowness in the execution of movement

4

Define atheotosis.

Slow, worm-like, writhing movements

5

Define hemiballismus/ ballismus.

Involunatary, violent, flinging movements of a limb while awake
- Ballismus= bilateral

6

Define dyskinesia.

General term for involuntary movements

7

Define freezing of gait.

Seen in PD, patients will:
1) Suddenly be unable to start walking
2) Stop moving forward while walking

8

Define festinating gait.

Abnormal gait seen in PD with small shuffling steps & absence of arm swing

9

What are the structures that compose the basal ganglia?

- Caudate
- Putamen
- Globus pallidus (internal & external segments)
- Subthalamic nucleus
- Substantia nigra (pars reticulata & pars compacta)

10

Outline the nigrotriatial pathway. What NT is important in this pathway?

SNc to Striatum
- DA
- Has both excitatory and inhibitory effects

11

Outline the corticostriate pathway. What NT is important in this pathway?

Cortex to striaum
- Excitatory
- Release glutamate

12

Outline the pathway from the GPe to GPi. What NT is important in this pathway?

Striatum to GPe= GABA/ enkephalin (path. in Huntington's)

Striatum to GPi= GABA

13

Is GABA excitatory or inhibitory?

Inhibitory

14

Is Glutamate excitatory or inhibitory?

Excitatory

15

What are the symptoms of PD?

- Resting tremor
- Rigidity ("cogwheel")
- Slowness of movement
- Postural instability

16

Which transmitter system is most severely damaged in Parkinson's Disease?

DA

17

Damage to which part of the basal ganglia causes Parkinson’s disease?

SNc

18

What are the symptoms to Huntington's Disease?

- Chorea
- Dementia
- Slow voluntary movements

19

What is the location of the lesion that causes hemiballismus?

Lesion to the contralateral subthalamic nucleus

20

What are the two functional loops of the basal ganglia?

Direct & indirect pathways

21

What is the general function of the direct pathway?

Excitation

22

What is the general function of the indirect pathway?

Inhibition

23

Draw the direct pathway.

p. 105

24

Draw the indirect pathway.

p. 105

25

What is the corpus striatum?

Neostriatum + paleostriatum

= putamen + caudate nucleus + globus pallidus

26

What is the neostriatum?

Striatum i.e. putamen + caudate nucleus

27

What is the paleostriatum?

Pallidum i.e. globus pallidus

28

Where do the main afferents to the basal ganglia synpase?

Striatum i.e. putamen + caudate nucleus

29

Where do the main efferent from the basal ganglia emerge?

Globus pallidus

30

What is the general circuit of the basal ganglia?

1) Cortex
2) Stratium
3) Pallidum
4) Thalamus

31

What are the four functional loops of the basal ganglia?

1) Body movement loop
- Motor cortex
- Internally generated movements

2) Oculomotor loop
- Frontal eye fields
- Saccadic eye movements

3) Prefrontal loop
- Dorsal PFc
- Initiation & termination of cognitive processes

4) Limbic loop
- Addiction to drugs of abuse
-Behavior & motivation

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