Flashcards in Exam #6: Sleep Deck (38):
What are the main types of brain waves?
What frequency is associated with alpha waves?
****Slightly slower than Beta waves--imagine closing your eyes in lecture, but you're still awake
What frequency is associated with beta waves?
*****These are the FASTEST waves & associated with the awake & alert individual
What frequency is associated with theta waves?
****Associated with sleep
What frequency is associated with delta waves?
0.5- 3.5 Hz
****Associated with sleep
Which type of wave has a very low frequency, below 3.5 per second?
Which type of wave is characteristic of an awake, alert adult whose eyes are open?
What are the different sleep stages?
What are the characteristics of Stage 1?
This is the transition from wakefulness to sleep
*Theta waves are prominent
What are the characteristics of Stage 2?
*K-complexes and sleep spindles are prominent
What are the characteristics of Stage 3?
Moderately deep sleep
*Some delta waves
What are the characteristics of Stage 4?
*>50% delta waves
What are the characteristics of REM sleep?
REM= "Rapid Eye Movements"
- Decreased EMG activity
- Increased HR (irregular)
- Increased resipiration
****Characterized by low-voltage/ fast waves (beta) & saw-tooth waves
What stage of sleep has the highest percent of time spent in delta waves?
During which stage of sleep is there intense descending inhibition of spinal motoneurons?
Which stage of sleep is least likely during the first 60 minutes of normal adult sleep?
What sleep stage is associated with penile erection?
What are the different types of epilepsy discussed in class?
What are the characteristics of a Grand Mal seizure?
This is now called a tonic-clonic seizure
- Loss of consciousness
- Tonic= period of increased tone
- Clonic= period of jerk movements
- Postictal state follows
What are the characteristics of a Petite Mal seizure?
This is now called an absence seizure
- Transient loss of consciousness
- Muscle tone is maintained
- Subtle motor manifestations e.g. eye blinking
- No postictal state
What are the characteristics of a Simple Partial seizure?
This is a focal type of seizure that does not affect consciousness e.g. Jacksonian motor seizures
What are the characteristics of a Complex Partial seizure?
These are seizures that originate in the temporal or frontal lobe & affect consciousness
- Verbal automatisms
- Motor automatisms
What are the stages of tonic - clonic seizures?
What type of epilepsy is characterized by EEG record of 3 per second spike and dome pattern?
What are the symptoms of narcolepsy?
- Sleep attacks
- Cataplexy (abrupt muscle weakness & hypotonia triggered by emotional stimulus
- Hypnagogic hallucinations i.e. hallucinations in transition between wakefullness & sleep
What causes narcolepsy in humans?
- Reduction/ absence of hypothalamic cells that produce orexin/hypocretin
- Thought to be caused by an autoimmune attack
What is a parasomnia?
Disorders of the sleep cycle and other non-sleep dysfunctions associated with sleep
- Bed wetting
- Sleep walking
- Sleep terrors
- REM sleep behavioral disorder
- Sleep apnea
What brain region and neurotransmitter is associated with REM sleep?
Reticular activating system
What brain regions and neurotransmitters are associated with wakefulness?
1) Locus coeruleus--NE
2) Pontine raphe neuron--Serotonin
3) Posterior hypothalamus--histaminergic
4) Lateral hypothalamus- orexin
What neurotransmitter is crucial for wakefulness?
Orexin in the lateral hypothalamus
What brain region is associated with the onset of sleep?
VPLO--ventrolateral preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus
What is a sensory evoked potentials? How are they measured? What is their clinical significance?
- This is a signals extracted from EEG following repeated stimulation of a sensory system
- Averaging the repeated stimuli will reduce "noise"
*****These have been well documented & standardized--abnormality in sensory evoked potential indicates an organic problem--also that these are done during SPINE SURGERY
What is the location of the primary biological clock?
Suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus
Where melatonin is synthesized and released?
What is the role of melatonin in sleep?
Activates the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus
Why do we sleep?
- Interstitial space enlarges and helps remove neurotoxins from the brain
- Sleep has an important role in learning & memory
What is nocturnal enuresis?