Exam #6: Sleep Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #6: Sleep Deck (38):
1

What are the main types of brain waves?

Alpha
Beta
Theta
Delta

2

What frequency is associated with alpha waves?

8-13 Hz

****Slightly slower than Beta waves--imagine closing your eyes in lecture, but you're still awake

3

What frequency is associated with beta waves?

13-30Hz

*****These are the FASTEST waves & associated with the awake & alert individual

4

What frequency is associated with theta waves?

4-7 Hz

****Associated with sleep

5

What frequency is associated with delta waves?

0.5- 3.5 Hz

****Associated with sleep

6

Which type of wave has a very low frequency, below 3.5 per second?

Delta waves

7

Which type of wave is characteristic of an awake, alert adult whose eyes are open?

Beta

8

What are the different sleep stages?

Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4
REM

9

What are the characteristics of Stage 1?

This is the transition from wakefulness to sleep

*Theta waves are prominent

10

What are the characteristics of Stage 2?

Light sleep

*K-complexes and sleep spindles are prominent

11

What are the characteristics of Stage 3?

Moderately deep sleep

*Some delta waves

12

What are the characteristics of Stage 4?

Deep sleep

*>50% delta waves

13

What are the characteristics of REM sleep?

REM= "Rapid Eye Movements"
- Decreased EMG activity
- Increased HR (irregular)
- Increased resipiration

****Characterized by low-voltage/ fast waves (beta) & saw-tooth waves

14

What stage of sleep has the highest percent of time spent in delta waves?

Stage 4

15

During which stage of sleep is there intense descending inhibition of spinal motoneurons?

REM

16

Which stage of sleep is least likely during the first 60 minutes of normal adult sleep?

REM

17

What sleep stage is associated with penile erection?

REM

18

What are the different types of epilepsy discussed in class?

Grand mal
Petite mal
Simple partial
Complex partial

19

What are the characteristics of a Grand Mal seizure?

This is now called a tonic-clonic seizure
- Loss of consciousness
- Tonic= period of increased tone
- Clonic= period of jerk movements
- Postictal state follows

20

What are the characteristics of a Petite Mal seizure?

This is now called an absence seizure
- Transient loss of consciousness
- Muscle tone is maintained
- Subtle motor manifestations e.g. eye blinking
- No postictal state

21

What are the characteristics of a Simple Partial seizure?

This is a focal type of seizure that does not affect consciousness e.g. Jacksonian motor seizures

22

What are the characteristics of a Complex Partial seizure?

These are seizures that originate in the temporal or frontal lobe & affect consciousness
- Verbal automatisms
- Motor automatisms

23

What are the stages of tonic - clonic seizures?

1) Tonic
2) Clonic
3) Postictal

24

What type of epilepsy is characterized by EEG record of 3 per second spike and dome pattern?

Petite Mal

25

What are the symptoms of narcolepsy?

- Sleep attacks
- Cataplexy (abrupt muscle weakness & hypotonia triggered by emotional stimulus
- Hypnagogic hallucinations i.e. hallucinations in transition between wakefullness & sleep

26

What causes narcolepsy in humans?

- Reduction/ absence of hypothalamic cells that produce orexin/hypocretin
- Thought to be caused by an autoimmune attack

27

What is a parasomnia?

Disorders of the sleep cycle and other non-sleep dysfunctions associated with sleep
- Bed wetting
- Sleep walking
- Sleep terrors
- REM sleep behavioral disorder
- Sleep apnea

28

What brain region and neurotransmitter is associated with REM sleep?

Reticular activating system
- Cholinergic

29

What brain regions and neurotransmitters are associated with wakefulness?

1) Locus coeruleus--NE
2) Pontine raphe neuron--Serotonin
3) Posterior hypothalamus--histaminergic
4) Lateral hypothalamus- orexin

30

What neurotransmitter is crucial for wakefulness?

Orexin in the lateral hypothalamus

31

What brain region is associated with the onset of sleep?

VPLO--ventrolateral preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus

32

What is a sensory evoked potentials? How are they measured? What is their clinical significance?

- This is a signals extracted from EEG following repeated stimulation of a sensory system
- Averaging the repeated stimuli will reduce "noise"

*****These have been well documented & standardized--abnormality in sensory evoked potential indicates an organic problem--also that these are done during SPINE SURGERY

33

What is the location of the primary biological clock?

Suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus

34

Where melatonin is synthesized and released?

Pineal gland

35

What is the role of melatonin in sleep?

Activates the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus

36

Why do we sleep?

- Interstitial space enlarges and helps remove neurotoxins from the brain
- Sleep has an important role in learning & memory

37

What is nocturnal enuresis?

Bed-wetting

38

What is somnambulism?

Sleep-walking

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