Flashcards in Exam #6: Cerebral Cortical Function Deck (23):
What are the specialized functions of the left cerebral hemisphere?
Left= Language-- called "Dominant"
- Also called the categorical hemisphere for sequential analytic processes
What are the specialized functions of the right cerebral hemisphere?
Right= visuospatial relations--called "non-dominant"
What is Broca's aphasia?
"Expressive aphasia" /motor aphasia/ nonfluent aphasia
- Patient has limited speech but it is slow, labored, and nonessential words are ommitted
- Simple comprehension intact
- Patient is aware of difficulty and v. upset by it
Lesions to what brain regions causes Broca's Aphasia?
Brodmann 44 & 45
What is Wernicke's aphasia?
"Receptive aphasia" or sensory aphasia
- Patient cannot comprehend language
- Speak with "word salad"
- Less awareness compared to Broca's aphasia
Lesions to what area produces Wernicke's aphasia?
Brodmann 22 in posterior temporal gyrus
What is Conduction aphasia? What causes Conduction aphasia?
This is an aphasia caused by a disconnect between Wernicke's & Broca's areas
- Patient has limited comprehension intact
- Uses paraphasias
- Cannot repeat what was heard
What is Global aphasia?
Most severe form of aphasia--patient cannot produce understandable speech or comprehend speech
What is the difference between Alexia & Agraphia?
Alexia= can't read
Agraphia= can't write
What is neglect syndrome?
There are various kinds of neglect syndrome that are dependent on the exact location of the lesion. Personal neglect syndrome=
- Deficit in self-image on one side of body
- Patient's won't wash or dress affected side
- Patients deny arm or leg is part of his or her body
What kind of lesion produces neglect syndrome?
Damage to the posterior parietal lobe in the non-dominant hemisphere
What is asomatognosia?
Lack of awareness of the condition or part of the body
What kind of lesion produces asomatognosia?
Damage to the posterior parietal lobe in the non-dominant hemisphere i.e. this is a feature of Neglect Syndrome
What is asterognosis?
Inability to identify objects by feeling them
What kind of lesion produces asterognosis?
Lesions to the somatosensory cortices in the parietal lobe
What are the affective components of language?
Expressing and recognizing emotion in speech
Which hemisphere is usually responsible for affective components of language?
****Note that defects result in "aprosodia" or loss of emotional expression/ understanding in speech
Describe the presentation of prefrontal lobe syndrome.
*****Think Phineas Gage*****
1) Personality changes
2) Planning deficits
4) Release of primitive reflexes, which is also called, "Frontal Release Signs"
5) Lack of ambition
6) Akinetic mutism
What is abulia?
Loss or impairment of the ability to perform voluntary actions & make decisions
What is akinetic mutism?
Patient does not move or speak even though he or she is awake
What is perseveration?
Tendency to continue with one form of behavior when the situation would require a new, changed response
*****E.g. a student may begin discussing a topic and then have difficulty moving on to a new topic. Or he may return repeatedly to certain favored topics or activities more frequently than would be expected of a person who simply is interested in that topic or activity.
What are primitive reflexes?
1) Suckling reflex
2) grasp reflex