Exam #6: Cerebral Cortical Function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #6: Cerebral Cortical Function Deck (23):
1

What are the specialized functions of the left cerebral hemisphere?

Left= Language-- called "Dominant"
- Also called the categorical hemisphere for sequential analytic processes

2

What are the specialized functions of the right cerebral hemisphere?

Right= visuospatial relations--called "non-dominant"

3

What is Broca's aphasia?

"Expressive aphasia" /motor aphasia/ nonfluent aphasia
- Patient has limited speech but it is slow, labored, and nonessential words are ommitted
- Simple comprehension intact
- Patient is aware of difficulty and v. upset by it

4

Lesions to what brain regions causes Broca's Aphasia?

Brodmann 44 & 45

5

What is Wernicke's aphasia?

"Receptive aphasia" or sensory aphasia
- Patient cannot comprehend language
- Speak with "word salad"
- Less awareness compared to Broca's aphasia

6

Lesions to what area produces Wernicke's aphasia?

Brodmann 22 in posterior temporal gyrus

7

What is Conduction aphasia? What causes Conduction aphasia?

This is an aphasia caused by a disconnect between Wernicke's & Broca's areas
- Patient has limited comprehension intact
- Uses paraphasias
- Cannot repeat what was heard

8

What is Global aphasia?

Most severe form of aphasia--patient cannot produce understandable speech or comprehend speech

9

What is the difference between Alexia & Agraphia?

Alexia= can't read
Agraphia= can't write

10

What is neglect syndrome?

There are various kinds of neglect syndrome that are dependent on the exact location of the lesion. Personal neglect syndrome=
- Deficit in self-image on one side of body
- Patient's won't wash or dress affected side
- Patients deny arm or leg is part of his or her body

11

What kind of lesion produces neglect syndrome?

Damage to the posterior parietal lobe in the non-dominant hemisphere

12

What is asomatognosia?

Lack of awareness of the condition or part of the body

13

What kind of lesion produces asomatognosia?

Damage to the posterior parietal lobe in the non-dominant hemisphere i.e. this is a feature of Neglect Syndrome

14

What is asterognosis?

Inability to identify objects by feeling them

15

What kind of lesion produces asterognosis?

Lesions to the somatosensory cortices in the parietal lobe

16

What are the affective components of language?

Expressing and recognizing emotion in speech

17

Which hemisphere is usually responsible for affective components of language?

Right hemisphere

****Note that defects result in "aprosodia" or loss of emotional expression/ understanding in speech

18

Describe the presentation of prefrontal lobe syndrome.

*****Think Phineas Gage*****

1) Personality changes
2) Planning deficits
3) Perseveration
4) Release of primitive reflexes, which is also called, "Frontal Release Signs"
5) Lack of ambition
6) Akinetic mutism

19

What is abulia?

Loss or impairment of the ability to perform voluntary actions & make decisions

20

What is akinetic mutism?

Patient does not move or speak even though he or she is awake

21

What is perseveration?

Tendency to continue with one form of behavior when the situation would require a new, changed response

*****E.g. a student may begin discussing a topic and then have difficulty moving on to a new topic. Or he may return repeatedly to certain favored topics or activities more frequently than would be expected of a person who simply is interested in that topic or activity.

22

What are primitive reflexes?

1) Suckling reflex
2) grasp reflex

23

What are frontal release signs?

This is when primitive reflexes return following damage to the prefrontal lobe.

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