Exam #6: Cerebral Cortical Function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #6: Cerebral Cortical Function Deck (23):

What are the specialized functions of the left cerebral hemisphere?

Left= Language-- called "Dominant"
- Also called the categorical hemisphere for sequential analytic processes


What are the specialized functions of the right cerebral hemisphere?

Right= visuospatial relations--called "non-dominant"


What is Broca's aphasia?

"Expressive aphasia" /motor aphasia/ nonfluent aphasia
- Patient has limited speech but it is slow, labored, and nonessential words are ommitted
- Simple comprehension intact
- Patient is aware of difficulty and v. upset by it


Lesions to what brain regions causes Broca's Aphasia?

Brodmann 44 & 45


What is Wernicke's aphasia?

"Receptive aphasia" or sensory aphasia
- Patient cannot comprehend language
- Speak with "word salad"
- Less awareness compared to Broca's aphasia


Lesions to what area produces Wernicke's aphasia?

Brodmann 22 in posterior temporal gyrus


What is Conduction aphasia? What causes Conduction aphasia?

This is an aphasia caused by a disconnect between Wernicke's & Broca's areas
- Patient has limited comprehension intact
- Uses paraphasias
- Cannot repeat what was heard


What is Global aphasia?

Most severe form of aphasia--patient cannot produce understandable speech or comprehend speech


What is the difference between Alexia & Agraphia?

Alexia= can't read
Agraphia= can't write


What is neglect syndrome?

There are various kinds of neglect syndrome that are dependent on the exact location of the lesion. Personal neglect syndrome=
- Deficit in self-image on one side of body
- Patient's won't wash or dress affected side
- Patients deny arm or leg is part of his or her body


What kind of lesion produces neglect syndrome?

Damage to the posterior parietal lobe in the non-dominant hemisphere


What is asomatognosia?

Lack of awareness of the condition or part of the body


What kind of lesion produces asomatognosia?

Damage to the posterior parietal lobe in the non-dominant hemisphere i.e. this is a feature of Neglect Syndrome


What is asterognosis?

Inability to identify objects by feeling them


What kind of lesion produces asterognosis?

Lesions to the somatosensory cortices in the parietal lobe


What are the affective components of language?

Expressing and recognizing emotion in speech


Which hemisphere is usually responsible for affective components of language?

Right hemisphere

****Note that defects result in "aprosodia" or loss of emotional expression/ understanding in speech


Describe the presentation of prefrontal lobe syndrome.

*****Think Phineas Gage*****

1) Personality changes
2) Planning deficits
3) Perseveration
4) Release of primitive reflexes, which is also called, "Frontal Release Signs"
5) Lack of ambition
6) Akinetic mutism


What is abulia?

Loss or impairment of the ability to perform voluntary actions & make decisions


What is akinetic mutism?

Patient does not move or speak even though he or she is awake


What is perseveration?

Tendency to continue with one form of behavior when the situation would require a new, changed response

*****E.g. a student may begin discussing a topic and then have difficulty moving on to a new topic. Or he may return repeatedly to certain favored topics or activities more frequently than would be expected of a person who simply is interested in that topic or activity.


What are primitive reflexes?

1) Suckling reflex
2) grasp reflex


What are frontal release signs?

This is when primitive reflexes return following damage to the prefrontal lobe.

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