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the selection process

5 steps:
1) screening applications and resumes
2) testing and reviewing work samples
3) interviewing candidates
4) checking references and background
5) selection


what is the goal of selection?

to maximize the number of "hits" and "minimize" the number of mistakes in hiring

"hits" are accurately predicting that a person would not have succeeded on the job and accurately predicting a person succeeding on the job


How do you know when the tools you’re using to select people are effective?

We look at several criteria that make selection tests effective including:

Person-organization fit, person-job fit, other kinds of fit.


test-retest reliability

consistency of scores on a test over time


inter-rater reliability

consistency of scores across judges


validity of a test

the degree to which the test measures what it is supposed to measure

in the selection context, the degree to which a selection test predicts future job performance


content validity

extent to which the content on a test is representative of a job's content

similarity between the selection test and the job description


criterion validity

correlation between selection test scores and job performance scores

2 forms: predictive and concurrent validity


concurrent criterion validity

extent to which scores on a selection test are related to job performance


predictive criterion validity

extent to which scores on a selection test correlates with future job performance


letters of recommendation, references, and applications

generally poor validity
better validity if it focuses on KSA's
can be risky (could sue and file a defamation of character)


application forms

national origin (protected class)
disabilities (protected class)
EEO statements

good applications only focus on job-related information
they have moderate validity
companies should avoid asking for religion, age, race, and marital status (protected classes)


physical ability tests

generally valid
exclude women and those with disabilities
need to be certain that physical requirements are essential to job performance


cognitive ability tests

vernal and math skills, very controversial for adverse impact reasons

valid especially for complex jobs

adverse impact (mainly along racial lines)

some companies give cognitive ability tests less weight than other predictors


personality tests

can be valid depending on the job and job analysis results

big 5 personality inventory measures agreeableness, neuroticism/emotional stability, conscientiousness, openness, and extraversion

conscientiousness and extraversion are the biggest generally


integrity tests

identify applicants who might steal

theft tolerance, attitudes, towards dishonest behavior

moderate validity



employee polygraph protection act (1988) is protecting most employees at private companies

very poor validity and reliability



unstructured/non-directive have low reliability and validity

structured are better validity and reliability

based on job analysis, consistent questions


what does an interview uniquely capture?

critical thinking and rationale

interpersonal skills

detailed behavioral examples


can someone fail a personality test?

high neuroticism, high narcissism, and low agreeableness


situational questions in interviews

uses critical incidents to assess decision making in dilemma-type hypothetical situations


what are the challenges of interviewing?

the halo effect (interviewer has a positive bias towards the interviewee)
biasses focusing on negative information based on race, sex, age, and appearance
1st impression error
faulty memory


what can help combat problems with interviewing?

interviewer training can help all of these, but they require a lot of effort and are very expensive


assessment centers

highly representative sample of the job content

in basket (give them a basket full of tasks and watch them get through it and delegate)

leaderless group discussion

dimensions to measure important parts of the job (critical thinking and teamwork)

nowadays, they give you an inbox of tasks and watch you tackle it!


what do assessment centers show you?

REAL behaviors. strongly related to future job performance and has low AI


bad interview questions

what is the origin of your name?
what is your ancestry?
how old are you?
what is your date of birth?
are you a man or a woman?
what is your race?
do you have any physical defects?
what color are your eyes/hair?
how tall are you?


multiple hurdle selection

many companies use a multiple hurdle approach

application - test - screening interview - 2nd interview - reference check - drug test and background check - HIRE


legal issues in selection

any preemployment test can be challenged legally if connection to job is not obvious

negligent hiring: company gets in trouble for hiring someone with a troubled past
- due diligence
- company is responsible for incidents occurring on work time
- thorough accurate background check is needed to avoid this

discrimination law - ADA, age discrimination act, and title VII and minimum qualifications



a company's planned efforts to help employees gain job-related KSA's so that employees can apply these KSA's back to the job


what are the benefits of training?

more efficiency and productivity on the job

keep up with the rapidly chaining environment

employee motivation, interest, and retention