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job analysis

the process of obtaining information about jobs by determining their duties, tasks, or activities

should outline the tools needed to do the job, the environment and times at which it needs to be done, with whom it needs to be done, and the outcome or performance level it should produce


what are two major pieces that come out of a job analysis?

job descriptions and job specifications


job description (outcome of job analysis)

a statement of the tasks and duties and responsibilities of a job to be performed


person specifications (job analysis)

a statement of the specific knowledge, skills, and abilities of a person who is to perform a job needs

also called KSAO's


how does job analysis help facilitate a firm's HR efforts?

strategic HR planning

workflow analysis and job design

recruitment and selection

training and development

performance appraisals and compensation

compensation management

legal compliance


what are the most common methods of gathering information needed to do a job analysis?

interviews, questionnaires, observation, and diaries

internet (O'Net)


interviews for job analyses

a job analyst or supervisor interviews individual employees and their managers about the parameters of the job


questionnaires for job analyses

the job analyst or supervisor circulates standard questionnaires to be filled out individually by jobholders. the forms contain questions similar to those asked in an interview but employees complete the forms unassisted


observation for job analyses

the job analyst or supervisor learns about the job by observing and recording the activities associated with it on a standardized form


diaries for job analyses

jobholders are asked to keep diaries of their work activities for an entire work cycle - the diaries are normally filled out at specific times of the work shift and maintained for a two to four week period


what has greatly facilitated the job analysis process?

software and internet programs


functional job analysis

a job-analysis approach that utilizes an inventory of the various types of work activities that can constitute a job


position analysis questionnaire (PAQ)

a questionnaire identifying approximately 200 different tasks that, by means of a five-point scale; seeks to determine the degree to which different tasks are involved in performing a job


the critical incident method (1)

a job analysis method by which important job tasks are identified for job success

identifies extremely effective or ineffective behaviors by documenting critical incidents that have occurred on the job
- the [context] and the incident
- employee response to the incident [behavior]
- [consequences] of the employee's actions


task inventory analysis (3)

job experts generate a list of tasks based on surveys, interviews, observations, and experience with the job

an organization-specific list of tasks and their descriptions used as a basis to identify components of jobs


competency based approach

the objective is to identify key competencies for the organization's success. these can be identified through focus groups, surveys, or interviews and might include such things as interpersonal communication skills, decision-making ability, conflict resolution skills, adaptability, or self-motivation


what are three parts of a job description?

1) the job's title and location

2) a job's identification section, which contains administration information such as numerical code for the job, to whom the jobholders reports, and wage information

3) a job duties section


job title

the job title is psychologically important because it provides status to the employee

the title can provide an indication of what duties of the job entail

should also indicate the level of the job in the organization


job identification section

includes departmental location, the person to whom the jobholder reports, and the date the job description was last revised

payroll or code number, # of employees doing the job, etc.


tasks, duties, and responsibilities section

statements covering job duties are typically arranged in their order of importance

duties must be ESSENTIAL functions for success on the job


job specification section


the skills required to perform the job

the physical demands the job places on the employee doing it


job design (increasing motivation with job design)

an outgrowth of job analysis that improve jobs through technological and human considerations in order to enhance organization efficiency and employee job satisfaction

organizing work into the tasks required to do the job


industrial engineering

a field of study concerned with analyzing work methods and establishing time standards



the process of studying and designing equipment and systems that are easy and efficient for employees to use


job enrichment (increasing motivation with job design)

applying motivation theories to the workplace (task significance, autonomy, feedback, etc.) to make the job more meaningful


job characteristics model

a job design theory that purports that three psychological states (experiencing meaningfulness of the work performed, responsibility for work outcomes, and knowledge of the results of the work performed) of a jobholder result in improved work performance, internal motivation, and lower absenteeism and turnover


what are the five core job dimensions that produce the three psychological states?

skill variety

task identity

task significance




job enlargement (increasing motivation with job design)

the process of adding a greater variety of tasks to a job


job rotation (increasing motivation with job design)

the process whereby employees rotate in and out of different jobs


employee empowerment

granting employees power to initiate change, thereby encouraging them to take charge of what they do