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selection process

deciding who does and does not make it into the company


what are the 5 steps in the selection process?

1) screening applications and resumes
2) Testing and reviewing work samples
3) Interviewing candidates
4) checking references and background
5) making a selection


what is the goal of the selection process?

the maximize hits!

the two variables here are future job performance and predicted success

miss: inaccurate prediction (person would have succeeded on the job)
miss: inaccurate prediction (person fails on the job)

hit: accurate prediction (person would not have succeeded on the job)
hit: accurate prediction (person succeeds on the job)


how do you know when the tools you're using to select people are effective?

person-organization fit, person-job fit, reliability, and validity tests


positive correlation

weak to strong is 0 to +1

as one variable increases, so does the other


negative correlation

weak to strong is 0 to -1

as one variables increases, the other decreases


no correlation

0 means there is no observable relationship between the two variables


reliability/consistency of a test

test-retest reliability: consistency of scores over time using the same metric
inter-rater reliability: consistency of scores across judges



degree to which your test measures what it is supposed to measure

Validity in the selection context: degree to which a selection test predicts actual job performance


content validity

the extent to which the content on a test is representative of actual job content


criterion validity

correlation between selection test and and job performance scores

there are TWO ways of getting this information: concurrent and predictive validity


concurrent validity

Extent to which scores on a selection test is RELATED to job performance (both measured at roughly the same time, usually with current employees).


predictive validity

Extent to which scores on a selection test correlates with future job performance.


what selection tools to company's use?

Cover Letters and Resumes (normal & video resumes)


Interviews (phone, computer, in-person, various structures)Interviews (phone, computer, in-person, various structures)

Employment TestsEmployment Tests

Ability, personality, knowledge, work samples & assessment centers, integrity

Background Investigations

Drug tests (May be best for safety-related or high risk or high security positions


letters of recommendations and contacting references

generally poor validity

better validity when they are focused on job-related KSA's

can be risky (there is a chance that the person interviewing could sue and file for defamation of character)


application forms

Background – education, job experience, previous employers, and accomplishments

Moderate validity

Companies should avoid asking for religion, age, race, marital status

good applications focus only on job-related information


physical ability tests

generally valid

exclude women and those with disabilities

need to be certain that physical requirements that are essential to job performance (business necessity)


cognitive ability tests

verbal and math skills, cognitive reasoning

very controversial

valid especially for complex jobs

adverse impact (mainly on the basis of race)

some companies give cognitive ability tests less weight than other predictors


personality tests

can be valid depending on the bob and job analysis results

big 5 personality inventory tests agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, extraversion, openness

conscientiousness and extraversion have been linked to job performance in most cases


can someone fail a personality test?

High Narcissism

High Neuroticism

Low Agreeableness


integrity tests

identify applicants who might steal from the company

theft tolerance, attitudes towards dishonest behavior

moderate validity



extremely low validity and reliability

employee polygraph protection act (1988)



unstructured/non-directive have low validity and reliability

structured have better validity and reliability

based on job analysis, consistent questions

Situational questions: Uses critical incidents to assess decision-making in dilemma-type hypothetical situations.


what doe an interview uniquely capture?

critical thinking and rationale

interpersonal skills and motivation

detailed behavioral examples


challenges of interviewing

We bring in a lot of error into the process of interviewing

Halo and horns (personal biases we bring to interview)

Focusing on negative information

Biases based on race, sex, age, appearance

1st impression error

Faulty memory

And many more!


what can help combat errors in the interview process?

interview training


assessment centers

highly representative job sample of the job content

simulations (in basket, leaderless group discussion, dimensions to measure important parts of the job like critical thinking and teamwork)

nowadays, they give you an inbox of tasks and watch you tackle it


what is unique about assessment centers?

they put real behaviors on display. performance in assessment centers are strongly related to future job performance and has low AI


legal issues in selection

any preemployment test can be challenged legally if connection to the job is not obvious


negligent hiring

company gets in trouble for hiring someone without a troubled past

if they don't do their due diligence, this can happen easily

company is responsible for losses if an incident occurs on work time

thorough accurate background checks can help prevent these

discrimination law (ADA, age discrimination act, title VII protect against this)