Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (48):
An expected compensatory cardiovascular reflex that occurs when a hypertensive
patient is treated with a vasodilator could involve:
an increase in heart rate, an increase in the force of cardiac contraction, and an increase
in sodium and water retention.
Antihypertensive drugs lower blood pressure by reducing either total peripheral
heart rate and/or cardiac stroke volume.
(Answer either A or B)
Which of the following antihypertensive drug classes directly bind to and block L-type
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists as antihypertensives
reduces angiotensin II leves
Which of the following best explains the antihypertensive mechanism of action for losartan
directly blocks ATI angiotensin receptors
Which of the following statements accurately describes the treatment approach for
patients with high blood pressure?
Blood pressure normalization might be achieved with life-style modifications (eg, diet and
B. Use thiazide diuretics for patients with stage I hypertension who have no other
C. Use a two drug combination for patients with stage ll hypertension who have no other
When used for the treatment of angina, nitroglycerin (Nitrostat)
reduces myocardialwork by decreasing preload.
The signs and symptoms of angina pectoris are
due to an excess of cardiac oxygen demand over oxygen supply.
Non-dihydropyridine-type calcium channel blocking drugs, e.g. verapamil (Calan) can be
used as anti-anginal agents because they
lower peripheral vascular resistance.
B. inhibit coronary artery spasm.
C. reduce contractility of cardiac myocytes.
D. THEY DO ALL THE ABOVE
A. have a small therapeutic index value.
B. enhance contractility by indirectly increasing the intracellular free Ca2* concentration in
C. BOTH A AND B
Which of the following mechanisms can reduce mortality in the pharmacologic treatment of
A. lnterference with the peripheral actions of angiotensin ll
B. Prevention of cardiac beta-1 adrenergic receptor activation
C. Blockade of aldosterone receptors
D.ALL OF THE ABOVE
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
A. prevent ATI angiotensin receptors from being activated.
B. reduce the synthesis of angiotensin ll.
C. increase levels of bradykinin.
A"inhibits Vitamin K-dependent synthesis of clotting factors.
B. is contraindicated in pregnancy.
C. does NOT elicit anticoagulation effects in vitro.
D. is characterized by all the above properties.
preferentially inhibit active coagulation factor X (Xa).
is a non-enzymatic plasminogen activator.
Which of the following drugs inhibits the ADP receptor on platelets?
Drug X is being tested against the standard chemotherapeutic regimen currently used to treat
pancreatic cancer. lnitial results of the clinical trial show reduced metastases, indicating
potential clinical benefit of drug X. lnvestigators are considering filing a new drug application
$Onl as their next step. Drug X is currently in what phase of clinical trials?
A drug that has a high potential for abuse, an approved medical use in the United States, and
for which no automatic refills can be prescribed is placed in which class of controlled
Which of the following must be submitted to the FDA to receive investigational new drug
A. Chemical synthesis protocols for making the drug
B. Informed consent form for studies performed in humans
C. Toxicology studies performed in animals
Phase I clinical trials serve to
establish the maximum tolerated dose and safety
ln the Vaughan-Williams classification of anti-arrhythmic drugs, sodium and potassium
channel blockers are categorized into which classes respectively?
I and III
Which of the following is/are used to classify anti-arrhythmic drugs according to the
A. Low therapeutic index
NONE OF THE ABOVE!
According to the Vaughan-Williams classification of anti-arrhythmic drugs, lidocaine is a
class I drug that is most effective on active cardiac tissue.
is a Vaughan-Williams class lll drug that prolongs the cardiac action potential and
increases the QT interval.
Bile acid sequestrants
act locally in the small intestine
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding LDL?
Regulation of liver LDL receptor levels is the dominant mechanism for
controlling LDL levels in humans.
HMG CoA reductase inhibitors
block a rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis.
Nicotinic acid (niacin)
Inhibits the rate-limiting step in triglyceride synthesis.
Which of the following statement is TRUE regarding prednisone?
Long term use can lead to suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.
Second generation Hl receptor antagonists used in the treatment of seasonal allergy
B. do not cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable accounts.
Which one of the following mechanisms is NOT responsible for the therapeutic effect of
glucocorticoids in the treatment of inflammation?
Blocking H2 receptors
Of the following types of drugs which is most likely to be used in the treatment of
Antibody against Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)
Which one of the following drugs selectively blocks the activity of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO)?
Which one of the following drugs acts directly on cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes as a
reversible inhibitor of enzyme activity?
Which one of the following drugs is least expected to cause gastric ulcers?
is an antagonist of leukotriene D4 receptors.
is selective for beta-2 adrenergic receptors and causes bronchodilation.
none of the above
inhibits lgE from binding to its receptor.
inhibits mast cell degranulation.
treats rheumatoid arthritis through inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase.
inhibits uric acid biosynthesis for the treatment of chronic gout.
a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) widely used for patients with acute gout.
blocks the action of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) a for the treatment of rheumatoid
Propranolol (lnderal) is more selective for beta-1 adrenergic receptors than
is metoprolol (LoPressor).
Endogenous vasoconstrictor hormones, neurotransmitters and autacoids elicit
smooth muscle contraction by stimulating an increase of calcium ion within the
muscle cell cytosol.
Combination anti-anginal therapy can include using beta-adrenergic receptor
antagonists with either nitrovasodilators or calcium channel blockers.
Current drug treatment of heart failure involves ggljvati.ng the neuro-humoral
systems that increase peripheral vascular resistance and fluid and salt retention in order
to increase cardiac outPut.