Flashcards in EXAM FOUR Deck (157):
The majority of drugs are absorbed from the GI tract by the process of
passive lipid diffusion
is used for the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome
Which of the following is the drug of choice for the treatment of acute adrenocorticol insufficiency?
Which of the following drugs is used for the long-term mgmt of hypothyroidism?
levothyroxine (Synthroid, L-T4)
Which of the following is the drug of choice for the treatment of thyroid storm?
is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)
Which of the following contraceptives increases the risk of thrombus formation?
the transdermal patch containing ethinyl estradiol and norelgestromin (Ortho evra)
Which of the following drugs prevents osteoporosis in postmenopausal women?
ALL (is used for the diagnosis of Cushing's, does not bind to corticosteroid-binding-globulin, has maximal anti-inflammatory activity and minimal salt-retaining activity)
? prevents parietal cell acid secretion by antagonism of the H2-histamine receptor subtype
? Protects the GI mucosa from attack by pepsin and acid
Colloidal bismuth compound (Pepto-Bismol)
? Prevents parietal cell acid secretion by direct inhibition of a proton-potassium ATPase
? Is a gallstone dissolution agent who's use was first described in compendiums of 7th century Chinese folk medicine, and is presumably the active ingredient of dried gallbladders taken from the Himalayan bear
ursodiol (Tagamet) (one test had amoxicillin as the answer)
? Convulsant effects are due to GABA receptor antagonism
? May induce long-term depletion of brain serotonin
? Induces a high incidence of emergence delirium
Drug X is being tested against the standard chemotherapeutic regimen currently used to treat pancreatic cancer. Initial results of the clinical trial show reduced metastases, indicating potential clinical benefit of drug X. Investigators are considering filing a new drug application (NDA) as their next step. Drug X is currently in what phase of clinical trials?
A drug that has a high potential for abuse, an approved medical use in the US, and for which no automatic refills can be prescribed is placed in which class of controlled substances?
Which of the following must be submitted to the FDA to receive investigational new drug (IND) status?
All (a. chemical synthesis protocols for making the drug,b. informed consent for studies performed in humans, c. toxicology studies performed in animals)
Phase I clinical trials serve to
establish the maximum tolerated dose and safety
A drug that has a high potential for abuse, and no federally recognized medical use, is placed in which class of controlled substance?
Which of the following drugs is not appropriate for tx of GERD?
Ioperamide (Imodium) / (other choices were Tagamet, Mylanta, antimicrobials to eliminate helicobacter pylori)
The federal agency that regulates the advertising of prescription drugs is the
Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug administration regulates all of the following EXCEPT the
Importation of Schedule II drugs (it regulates development of new prescription drugs, approval of new prescription drugs, marketing of prescription drugs, advertising of prescription drugs
? A competitive antagonist at histamine H2 receptors
? A noncompetitive inhibitor of the "proton pump", a prodrug which requires an acidic environment for conversion to its active form
? Physically protects the stomach mucosal lining by selectively binding to damaged surfaces
T/F According to federal law, Schedule 1 drugs can only be prescribed for life threatening diseases
T/F Phase I clinical trials involve laboratory animal testing to assess the safety and biological activity of new drugs
T/F The Food and Drug Administration requires data demonstrating the bioavailability, safety, and efficacy of a new prescription drug
has the properties of B and C (B. reduced the risk of breast and uterine cancers C. prevents postmenopausal osteoporosis)
Which of the following contraceptives in contraindicated in women older than 35 who smoke?
the transdermal patch containing ethinyl estradiol and norelgestromin (Ortho evra)
induces ovulation AND is an estrogen receptor antagonist
? Has the highest anti-inflammatory activity of the drugs listed above
? Is an antagonist for the aldosterone receptor
? Is the drug of choice for the tx of acute adrenocorticol insufficiency
? Inhibits the production of all adrenal steroids
T/F Contraceptives combining estrogen and progestin may increase the risk of blood clots in older women who smoke
T/F Clomiphene citrate (Clomid) is a progesterone receptor antagonist used for medical abortion
Medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera)
has an extended half-life compared to progesterone
? Is an agonist for the mineralocorticoid receptor
Molecular targets for antibiotic agents include
all of the above (a. bacterial call wall synthesis, b. bacterial ribosomes, c. bacterial DNA gyrases)
Common mechanisms by which bacteria develop resistance to beta-lactam antibiotic drugs include
both A and B (a. spontaneous mutations in the transpeptidases resulting in loss of drug binding b. beta-lactamases that inactivate the drug)
A beta-lactam antibiotic that is effective only against Gram(-) bacteria is
This antibiotic agent is used most commonly as a surgical prophylaxis to prevent post-op infections
This bacterial agent was developed recently (2005) to treat bacterial strains that are resistant to most established antibiotics including MRSA and VR strains
This bacterial agent has been used for decades as the tx of choice for MRSA
This bacteriocidal agent acts of lipids of Gram(-) bacteria to lyse their outer lipid bilayer membrane
polymyxin B (Aerosporin)
Which one of the following cell cycle phases is inhibited by cancer chemotherapy drugs?
The term "targeted cancer therapy" refers to which of the following?
Drugs that selectively target cancer-associated molecules
Which of the following describes a mechanism by which a non-specific chemotherapy agent blocks DNA replication?
A drug is a structural analog of a nucleotide required for DNA synthesis
Which of the following is an example of an endocrine therapy for cancer treatment?
Drugs that block the activity of aromatase
Which of the following factors affects the amount of drug that crosses the placenta?
All (A. levels and activates of placental enzymes that metabolize the drug B. lipid solubility of the drug c. the molecular weight of the drug)
Based on the FDA's drug-in-pregnancy rating scale, a category X drug
is contraindicated during pregnancy
A pregnant woman consumes a teratogenic agent during weeks 30 to 35 of fetal development. Which of the following fetal defects is most likely to occur?
Cocaine and tobacco-associated intrauterine growth retardation occur due to which of the following mechanisms?
restriction of uterine blood vessels
? Inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase
? Is a sulfonamide rapidly absorbed by the body and used for the tx of systemic bacterial infections
? Is a combination of trimethoprim (Primsol) with sulfamethoxazole
? Is a aminoglycoside for the tx of patients with TB
? Inhibits mycobacterial cell wall biosynthesis
? Is the first choice of aminoglycosides due to its low cost and reliable activity
? Requires herpes viral kinase for activation of its antiviral activity
? Inhibits influenza A infection by binding to the viral M2 protein
? Is a triazole used in the tx of fungal meningitis
? Blocks the biosynthesis of the fungal cell wall
T/F A future stategy to circumvent bacterial resistance to antibiotic drugs might involve inhibiting bacterial signalling by quorum-sensing
T/F Sulfonamides are bacterial folate synthesis inhibitors
T/F For treating multidrug resistant TB patients, "compound drug therapy"/combination therapy is optional
The antibacterial action of vancomycin (Vancocin) is due to its inhibition of bacterial
cell wall synthesis
The antibacterial action of azithromycin (Zithromax) is due to its inhibition of bacterial
Which of of the following drugs is useful for the tx of bacterial infections due to either MRSA or VRE?
Which of the following stategies is being used to develop future drugs that will combat bacterial strains resistant to current drugs?
All (A, develop new synthetic drugs based on old drugs B. search for new natural antibiotics, C. identify new target proteins from the sequenced genomes of resistant bacteria D. Target quorum sensing signaling bt bacteria)
An antibiotic that kills only Gram(-) bacteria is classified as
Cancer chemotherapy targets which of the following cell cycle phases?
Both A and B (A. DNA synthesis (S phase) B. Mitosis (M phase))
Which one of the following statements regarding the anti-cancer activity of tamoxifen (Novaldex) is true?
Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that binds to the estrogen receptor)
Which one of the following drugs is a monoclonal antibody against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2?
Which of the following statement(s) is true for cancer chemotherapeutic drugs that block DNA syntheses (S phase)
All. A, They may be structural analogs of nucleotides B They may be structural analogs of molecules needed for the synthesis of nucleotides C. They may physically bind DNA and deform its structure)
Which of the following statements is true regarding drugs and teratogenesis?
The greater the drug exposure, the more sever the detrimental effects are on the developing fetus.
? Is a fluoroquinolone that is used to treat inhalational anthrax
? Is a highly soluble sulfonamide used for the treatment of urinary tract infections
? Is a poorly absorbed sulfonamide used for the tx of inflammatory bowel disorders
? Is a semisynthetic product of kanamycin with decreased tendency for developing drug resistance
? Inhibits the synthesis of mycolic acid, an essential component in mycobacterial cell wall
? Is a first-line antiTB agent that inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase in prokaryotic cells
? Is the most commonly used aminoglycoside due to its low cost and reliable antibacterial activity
T/F Bacterial resistance to antibiotics emerged only recently due entirely to the indiscriminant overuse of antibiotics by humans
T/F Nearly 15% of americans experience some form of allergic rxn to the Batalactam antibiotics
T/F Due to its exceptionally broad-spectrum of activity, imipenem/cilastatin (Primaxin) is recommended for use as a first line drug of choice for most bacterial infections
T/F Amantadine (Symmtrel) targets the M2 protein of the influenza A virus
T/F For the tx of herpes simplex virus infections, acyclovis (Zovirax) requires viral thymidine kinase for activation
T/F Fluconazole (Diflucan) is used in the tx of fungal meningitis
T/F Amphotericin B (Amphocin) inhibits the biosynthesis of ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane
Which of the following factors significantly contributes to the development of antibiotic drug resistance?
Which of the following mechanisms contributes to the anti-cancer activity of aromatase inhibitors?
inhibition of estrogen production
Which of the following drugs is a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor?
Based on the FDA's drug-in-pregnancy rating scale, which of the following drugs is an example of a category X drug?
? Used historically as an important alternative tx for MRSA
? A semi-synthetic, extended spectrum Beta-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin family
? Used most commonly as a prophylactic against opportunistic bacterial infections following surgery
? A safe, broad spectrum antibiotic that binds to the 50S robisomal subunit to inhibit protein synthesis
? A new generation antibiotic that is effective for the treatment of Gram postive skin infections due to MRSA and VRE
? A drug-of-choice for infections due to intracellular bacteria such as chlamydia
? A fluoroquinolone that blocks bacterial DNA gyrase
? A sulfonamide rapidly absorbed by the body and used for tx of systemic bacterial infections
? Is an aminoglycoside for tx of TB
? Is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent with activity against mycobacterium tb
? Binds to the viral M2 protein and inhibits the uncoating step during viral infection
T/F a drug induced fever can be a common late allergic rxn to long-course tx with beta-lactam antibiotics
An example of a phase-non-specific drugs is
Which of the following mechanisms contributes to the anti-cancer activity of anthracyclines?
Anthracycline inhibition of topoisomerase II
Bleomycin-associated pulmonary fibrosis is likely to occur due to which of the following mechanisms?
Bleomycin hydrolase is not expressed in lung tissue
Tobacco-associated intrauterine growth retardation occurs due to which of the following mechanisms?
restriction of uterine blood vessels
can activate both the glucocorticoid receptor and the mineralocorticoid receptor
Which of the following is an antagonist of the aldosterone receptor?
The antibacterial action of minocycline (Minocin) is due to its inhibition of bacterial
The antibacterial action of amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin) is due to its inhibition of bacterial
The antibacterial action of Cefepime (Maxiprime) is due to its inhibition of bacterial
cell wall synthesis
The antibacterial action of bacitracin (Baciguent) is due to its inhibition of
cell wall synthesis
Which of the following drugs is useful for the treatment of Gram-positive bacterial infections of MRSA?
? Inhibits two steps in the bacterial folate biosynthesis pathway
? Inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase
? Blocks fungal cell wall biosynthesis through inhibiting glucan synthase
T/F Drug induced fever is a common allergic reaction to a long-term treatment with Beta-lactam antibiotics
T/F The addition of antibiotics to livestock food in large-scale agricultural feedlots is a major contributor to community-acquired resistant strains of bacteria
T/F Future strategies to circumvent antibiotic resistance include the development of new drugs that challenge bug survival (ei that are bactericidal)
A semi-synthetic, broad spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic is
This bacterial agent was developed recently to treat bacterial strains that are resistant to most establised antibiotics
The "fractional cell kill" or "log kill" hypothesis of cancer chemotherapy refers to the concept that
Both A and B are correct (A. a set drug concentration given for a defined period of time will kill a constant percentage of cells, independent of the absolute number of cells B. chemotherapy theoretically never reduces the tumor cell population to zero)
Antimicrotubule drugs are effective chemotherapy agents bc they
interfere with tubulin polymerization or mircrotubule depolymerization
? Is a DNA gyrase inhibitor used in the tx of inhalational anthrax infection
? Is derived from kanamycin with decreased tendency for drug resistance
? Is used for the tx of infections by influenza A virus
? Is a glucan synthase inhibitor that blocks fungal cell wall biosynthesis
? Targets ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, leading to channel formation and the loss of intracellular constituents
Amphotericin B (Amphocin)
? Is only activated in cells that are infected with herpes simplex virus
? Is able to cross the blood-brain barrier for the tx of primary brain tumors
? Is used for the treatment of breast cancer patients only when their tumor epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed
? Stabilizes polymerized microtubles, leading to mitotic arrest
? Inhibits thymidylate synthase in tumor cells
? Blocks peptidoglycan cross-linking during bacterial cell wall synthesis
? Is primarily responsible for bacterial resistance to both penicillins and cephalosporins
? Was developed recently for use in specific cases to treat Gram-positive bacterial infections that are resistant to vancomycin
? Binds the 30S ribosome to inhibit protein synthesis in many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains
T/F Fludrocortisone (Florinef) is used for the tx of acute adrenocortical insufficiency
T/F Spironolactone (Aldactone) is an antagonist for the aldosterone receptor
T/F Gram-negative bacteria contain a thick outer cell wall and a single lipid bilayer
T/F Sirolimus blocks the response of T cells to cytokines
T/F Weeks 2-8 of human embryonic development are the least sensitive to teratogenic agents
T/F Most drugs can be teratogenic if given at the right time and dose to a susceptible host
T/F Thalidomide is an example of a delayed teratogen
? A strong, or high ceiling, diuretic used to treat chronic and/or severe volume exapanded conditions; for example, edema associated with organ failure
? A low ceiling diuretic that inhibits Na-Cl cotransporter in the distal tubule
? A weak diuretic that inhibits carbonic anhydrase in the proximal tubule to inhibit bicarbonate reabsorption
? An osmotic diuretic that works in the proximal tuble and descending loop of Henle, has a fase onset of action and is used in acute situation such as cerebral edema