Flashcards in GenPharmExam2Review Deck (42):
An important animal model for study drug addiction and abuse?
An important neurotransmitter for reward and good feelings in drug abuse particularly cocaine?
What physiological brain measure supports the idea that drug abuse/addiction is chronic and relapsing?
Levels of D2 dopamine recptors examined by PET scanning
How long can it take for the brain to heal after long-term and repetitive drug use?
Months to years
Flumazenil (Romazicon) blocks the pharmacological actions of?
Benzos and NBRAs
A patient with a temporary sleep disorder that is associated with anxiety would be treated best with?
Long acting benzo such as diazepam (Valium)
suppresses seizure activity associated with status epilepticus relieves anxiety following acute administration reduces spasticity associated with cerebral palsy and suppresses the syndrome associated with alcohol withdrawal
increases GABA-mediated chloride conductance at the GABA-A receptor
SSRIs must be administers for
two or more weeks before the onset of their antidepressant effect is observed
Tricyclic antidepressants may cause tachycardia and arrthymias because they
BOTH inhibit norepinephrine reuptake in the heart and block muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the heart
Aripirzole (Abilify) a drug recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of bipolar disorders is a
partial agonist of dopamine D2 recpetors
can be used in combo with the antipsychotic drug haloperidol for the treatment of acute mania; is effect in prophalytic treatment of bipolar affective disorder decrease both manic and depressive phases; and can be use in combo with antiepileptic drug carbamazepine for the treatment of bipolar affective disorder
Drug that exerts an anti-Parkinson effect by directly activatin D2 dopamine receptors?
The major reason that Carbidopa is of value in Parkinsonism is that the compound?
Inhibits aromatic L-amino acide decarboxylase
Nerve fibers most sensitive to locals?
Small diameter with rapid firing rates
No epinephrine at
Which drug functions primarily by increasing insulin secretion?
Which drug should not be given to a type 2 diabetes patient who also has an intestinal disease which can be exacerbated by increased formation of gas?
It takes 3-6 weeks for a thiazolidinedione agent to reach maximal effects because...
The drug needs to activate PPAR-gamma to induce gene expression in target tissues
The most serious side effect of insulin replacement therapy is
The ketogenic diet is effective for treatment of
a wide spectrum of epilepsies in children.
A patient with a temporary sleep disorder without anxiety would be best treated with
a short-acting benzo such as triazolam (Halcion)
Which of the following drugs interacts with GABA-A receptor complex?
Diazepam (Valium) Zolpidem (Ambien) Phenobarbital (Luminal) Flumazenil (Romazicon) ALL
Tricyclic antidespessents must be administered for
several weeks before the onset of their antidepressent effect is observed
Which of the following side effects of antipsychotic drugs occurs only after chronic administration?
Short acting non-benzo drug that is useful as a hypnotic agent; its effect can be reversed by benzo antagonists?
A benzo receptor antagonist that is useful in treating benzo overdose?
T or F. Chronic treatment with diazepam (Valium) results in the accumulation of active drug metabolites that may persist for weeks following withdrawal of the drug.
T or F. The clinical potency of typical antipsychotic drugs correlates with their affinity for binding to D2 subtypes of dopamine receptors in the brain.
Which of the following pharm actions of diazepam is mediated by an action on the GABA-A receptor?
ALL anxiety reduction muscle relaxation anti-convulsant activity
Benzos are useful for the emergency treatment of
seizure disorders such as status epilepticus
Alcohol induced brain injury can result from
alcohol neurotoxicity thiamine deficiency and hepatic encephalopathy
Local anesthetics cause
no permanent damage to nerves at therapeutic concentrations
T or F. Atypical antipsychotic drugs frequently elicit strong extrapyramidal motor side effects.
Which of the following drugs does not enhance GABA0mediated chloride conductance through the GABA-A receptor?
Chronic admin of barbiturates results in
pharmacodynamic tolerance to barbiturates and benzos pharmacokinetic tolerance to barbiturates and physical dependence
localized infection and inflammation can affect the action of local anesthetics by:
lowering tissue pH and decreasing the ability of the anesthetic to diffues into nerve tissue
Local anesthetics act by
blocking sodium channels
High doses of local anesthetics may escape into the circulation and affect the normal function of the brain and heart because
these two organs/tissues contain electrically excitable cells that are sensitive to the channel blocking of local anesthetics
When injected along with local epinephrine can
cause local vasoconstriction and reduce diffusion of the anesthetic away from the site of injection AND cause ischemia or gangrene in small extremities such as fingers and toes