Exam 3- Acid Base Balance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3- Acid Base Balance Deck (17):
1

What is going on during the Acid Base balance?

CO2+H20--H2CO3 (bicarbonic acid)--H+ + HCO3- (bicarbonate)
LUNGS and KIDNEYS works together to maintain homeostasis
Lungs-respiratory (fast)
Kidneys- metabolic (slow)

2

What 3 arterial blood gas values maintain homeostasis?

1. pH: 7.35-7.45
2. PaC02: 35-45 (respiratory)
3. HC03-: 22-26 (metabolic)

3

Where are ABG's located?

Lower than veins therefore analyze ABG's

4

When should you check ABGs every hour?

Pt who overdosed on Aspirin

5

Interpretation of ABG's: ROME

Respiratory-Opposite
Metabolic-Equal

6

RO- Respiratory Opposite

Increased pH, Decreased PaCo2- Respiratory Alkalosis
Decreased pH, Increased PaCo2- Respiratory Acidosis

7

ME- Metabolic Equal

Increased pH, Increased HCO3-= Metabolic Alkalosis
Decreased pH, Decreased HCO3-= Metabolic Acidosis

8

What can cause compensated respiratory acidosis?

Long standing respiratory insufficiency e.g- COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

9

What can cause respiratory acidosis?

HYPOVENTILATION- CO2 builds up
RESPIRATORY FAILURE: ASTHMA, EMPHESEMIA therefore pt TRAPS TOO MUCH CO2 in lungs and C02 expands causing resp. acidosis. BRONCHITIS
PNEUMONIA

10

Nursing interventions for pt experiencing resp acidosis to help start breathing?

oxygen therapy
semi-fowlers position
percussion test, chest physiotherapy
spirometer
sputum suctioning
ASSIST PT WITH THESE^

11

What causes Respiratory Alkalosis?

HYPERVENTILATION: exhaling too much C02 (getting rid of) because breathing too fast.
Caused by: TRAUMA pt in shock or ventillator setting is inappropriate for pt in ICU

12

Nursing interventions for pt in respiratory alkalosis?

Have pt breathe in PAPER BAG so that they can breathe in the CO2.
Pt breathe in a MASK
REASSURANCE: person in car accident, child or someone injured therefore parent's breathing becomes RAPID..bring parent back to HOMEOSTASIS..breathe bitch breathe in a bag!

13

What causes metabolic acidosis?

anaerobic metabolism
lactic acidosis
anoxia
renal failure
poisoning
overdose

14

What is the most common metabolic acidosis?

DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS- breakdown of fat in body, that process causes release of ketones (acidic, high) in diabetic pt. therefore ketones released in blood, which are highly acidic= metabolic acidosis!

15

Nursing interventions for metabolic acidosis?

Take seizure percautions
Monitor I&Os

16

What causes Metabolic Alkalosis?

1. ANTACIDS- excess Tums, alkaseltzer or antacid use excessively
2. GASTRIC LOSS- e.g NG tube, loss of stomach fluid, HCL acid loss in stomach therefore shift to become alkalodic.
Effects: VOMITING, POISONING, OVERDOSE

17

Nursing interventions for metabolic alkalosis?

1. Teach encourage- do not use antacids
2. Put pt on meds to help gastric loss subside