Flashcards in Exam 4- Diabetes Deck (26):
What is diabetes?
increased BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL
Type I Diabetes is?
Strictly pancreas not making insulin
Type II Diabetes is?
Making insulin but body not utilizing the insulin properly. Very preventable.
What is the ideal range to stabilize a normal glucose range?
What are the 2 functions of the pancreas?
1. Endocrine- to prod. Insulin
2. Exocrine- amylase and lipase for digestive enzymes
What is the function of Insulin?
Helps move glucose into the cells and out of the blood to be utilized. If glucose is not moved from the blood= Hyperglycemia
Why does Insulin lower blood glucose?
To help maintain glucose levels to be 70-120 mg/dl
Why is there a spike in glucose in the morning?
Because conterregulatory hormones such as glucagon, epinephrine, GH, and cortisol increase in the morning opposing the effects of insulin causeing increased blood glucose levels.
Type 1 Diabetes is what kind of disease?
Autoimmune mediated diseases.
5-10% of all diabetics
generally affects pop. under age of 40
and includes Idiopathic diabetes (unk. cause)
What ethnicities are more prone to inherit idiopathic diabetes?
African or Asian
Why do the Polys occur?
Because without insulin the body builds up glucose causing the poly sxs
1. Polyuria- urination
2. Polydipsia- thirst
3. Polyphagia- hunger
Why is Diabetic Ketoacidosis life-threatening?
complication due to severe insulin deficiency, the body begins breaking down fats for energy and ketones form in the liver...these ketones are released into the blood stream. Accumulation causes metabolic acidosis.
What are Kussmaul respirations?
DEEP and LABORED- trying to eliminate CO2.
How do you treat DKA?
Fasting glucose ____ or higher can indicate diabetic
126 or higher
Random glucose (eating all day)____ or higher can indicate diabetic
200 or higher or tolerance
What is the C-peptide test used for?
test pancreas function for making insulin.
Decreased C-pep= not making insulin
Increased C-pep= not using insulin (cellular level)
How many units of insulin are in 1 cc syringe?
100 units of insulin
0.4 mL = ___ units of insulin
40 units of insulin
Diabetic ranges for BGLs
150 or higher= interventions needed
200 or 300 give HUmalog and call Dr.
90% of diabetics are what kind of diabetic
Type II DM and of Native Alaskan American descent
Lisinopril helps preserve what organ?
Kidneys for longer period of time for prediabetes pt not only HTN pt.
What action does Metformin have in regards to insulin?
Doesn't make cells prod. more insulin, makes cells UTILIZE INSULIN better
34 units of insulin, 1 mL =_____mL