Flashcards in Exam 3- Nutrition Deck (48):
Carbs consist of ____% of cal intake per day and why?
50-60% because carbs are the primary source of energy the body needs.
What is the only sugar the brain uses?
Carbs are broke down into what 3?
1. Simple sugars- glucose, honey, fruits
2. Complex CHO- glycogen, ww, oats, potatoes
3. Starch- a form of complex CHO- carrots, swt potato
What are the roles for essential AAs?
necessary for tissue growth and maintenance.
What is Arginine (EAA) used for?
Important role in immune system
What does Albumin use AA for?
to build Albumin proteins and transport. important for metabolic pathways.
EAA verses NEAA?
EAA- CANNOT be manufactured in the body and must be supplied as part of the protein ingested from DIET.
NEAA- the body can manufacture.
What are the 2 lipids?
1. Sat. fats- solid all filled with H. butter, lard.
2. Unsat fats- can accommodate more H atoms. veg oil, evoo, more healthy dietarily.
What foods can be found in Vitamin A? (eyesight)
carrots, sweet potato, squash..highes in COD LIVER OIL
What foods and Vitamin B1 be found in? (B1-PIG)
THIAMINE: wheat germ, ww, grains, nuts, highest in PORK.
What foods can Vitamin B12 be found in?
COBALAMIN- animal products/animal food source.
*Problem for vegans/vegetarians.
What foods can Vitamin C be found in?
Baked potatot, oranges, citrus fruits, tomato, grapefruit
What foods can Vitamin D be found in?
milk, cheese, yogurt, dairy, sunlight--> skin
What foods can Vitamin E (seeds) be found in?
avocado, sunflower seeds, nuts, veg oil
What foods can Vitamin K be found in?
Spinach, green, leafy vegetables.
Why are vitamins important?
ORGANIC compound that cannot be manufacturesd by body and is needed in small quantities to catalyze metabolic processes. Deficiency can lead to disease.
Fat soluble vitamins are?
A,D,E,K- body can store these. Limits for E,K. Content higher in fresh foods.
h20 soluble vitamins are?
all C and B complex vits. Body c/n store these therefore need daily from diet.
What are minerals?
Inorganic elements that need to be in IONIZED form because body uses them readily.
What are the 2 important minerals for women and what are the dosages?
Calcium- 1200 mg to prevent osteoporosis
Iron- 18 mg to aid menstrual woman
How much cc of H20 is required for intake?
2,000 cc to have 2,000 cc out.
What are 6 essential nutrients?
CI and DRI depend on?
age, weight, gender and pt.
How many servings of fruits should a diet have?
How many serving of veggies?
How many servings of dairy and meat should a person have?
How many % for fat?
no more than 30%
What is a serving size reference?
about 1/2 a cup.
What foods should you avoid for a neonate-1 year old?
HIGH ALLERGIC FOODS: honey- botulism, corn syrup products, strawberries, nuts, whole milk b/c casin, milk prot too big for baby to handle therefore can cause kidney/liver damage during metabolism and excretion= bleeding in GI tract.
When should you feed a baby?
When should you introduce iron fortified rice cereals (first) then solid foods?
At 6 months because iron storage will deplete from liver.
How long should you wait to space foods?
1 week in order to detect allergies.
What is a risk factor for school aged children and nutrition?
Risk for OBESITY r/t eating away from home, sharing snacks with friends= poor eating habits.
Teach healthy eating habits, promote exercise, 2400 kcal.
Adolescents and nutrition requirements for male and females?
Males require more calcium and protein for muscle dev and increased CI.
Females need Iron, 18 mg for menstrual cycle.
What disorders can occur in adolescents?
Anorexia nervosa- extreme weight loss, refusal to eat
Anorexia bulimia- binge, purge
Why should adults take Vitamin D and Calcium at the same time?
To reduce osteoporosis. Vit D intake is essential to maintain Calcium homeostasis.
Vitamin C helps to?
Facilitate use of IRON in body to absorb
what should you remind adults in regards to nutrition?
Have a HEALTHY DIET b/c start to see chronic illness, CV, renal d, etc
What is the most accurate measurement for nutrition?
WEIGHT- same scale, with or without clothes, time of day, before or after meal
What do you do to avoid constipation?
Increase fluid, fiver, and activity. Food sources: celery, ww, grain, and vegetables
What can happen due to vitamin B12 (extrinsic factor) deficiency and who is at risk?
PERNICIOUS ANEMIA..vegans/vegetarians, people with GI problems b/c not having much intrinsic factor (gastric parietal cells), alcoholism. Major cause of deficiency: MALABSORPTION
What is A & O x3
name, place, and time (what day is it)...LOC
What are the two most commonly used Dx?
Impaired nutrition: either less than or more than body requirements
Pt centered goals include SMART?
What are 6 different types of diets ordered by physician?
1. Clear liquid- water, clear broths, gelatin
2. Full liquid- shakes, turn liquid at body temp
3. Soft- pureed or mech soft
4. Diet as tolerated
5. Mod. for disease- LCS for diabetic pt
6. High Fiber- or Low residual (low fiber)
What is the most common GI disorder?
NAUSEA- subjective feeling of epigastric discomfort and sensation for vomiting. Use 1-10 pain scale.
Most common prob in pt due to meds or procedure/surgery pt went under
What are some nursing interventions for a pt with N & V?
2. Clear liquids- saltines, ginger ale, 7up, toast, crackers. No spicy foods
3. Environment- quiet, well ventilated
4. If V, watch for dehydration and electrolyte imbalance