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Flashcards in Exam 3 Bad Bugs Deck (43)
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1

how many people get sick from food borne illness each year?

48 million people (1 in 6 Americans)

2

how many people die from food borne illness each year?

3,000 people

3

what do recalls of contaminated foods often result in?

businesses shutting down

4

who is at greatest risk for getting food borne illnesses?

-elderly
-children
-pregnant women
-immunocompromised (people with weak immune systems)

5

what portion of meat is usually free of microorganisms

interior portions of muscles

6

4 microorganisms

-bacteria
-fungi: yeasts and molds
-parasites
-viruses

7

what is susceptible to contamination and spoilage

-surfaces
-cutting and grinding bc spreads bacteria from outside surface to the inside

8

intoxication

-consumption of toxins produced by bacteria in the food
-bacteria might not still be in the food
-ex. staphylococcus aureus

9

infection

-consumption of live bacteria and then they grow inside your body
-visual/ will be able to see them
-problem causing factors (ex. diarrhea)
-ex. salmonela, e. coli, parasite

10

pathogens

-can cause food poisoning or infection
-no visual signs necessary

11

food spoilage

-color, odor and texture deterioration of meat
-caused by microorganisms on the meat
-if you can see spoilage, sign that pathogenic bacteria is probably present too

12

round or cocci

-staphylococcus
-7 round spread out balls

13

rod or bacilli

-lactobacillus
-small rods like seeds

14

spiral or spirilli

-leptospirosis
-long spirals

15

comma or vibrios

-vibrio cholerae
-bean or comma like

16

filamento

-actinobacteria
-tree branch like

17

diplococci

-strep enterococcus
-2 small balls connected

18

streptococci

-strep thermophilus
- caterpillar/ chain of balls

19

staphylococci

-staph aureus
-rubix cube of balls

20

10^3 bacteria per gram of meat

raw fresh meat

21

10^9 bacteria per gram of meat

spoiled meat

22

one cubic inch can hold _______ bacteria

9 trillion

23

how do bacteria reproduce

-binary fission
-cell replicates then splits into 2 daughter cells

24

where are pathogens found

intestinal tract

25

what stage has the highest risk for contamination

-kill floor
-opening hide
-during skinning

26

6 factors that affect microbial growth

F: food
A: acidity (avoid pH 4.6 - 7.5)
T: time (keep under 4 hrs)
T: temperature (avoid 40-140 degrees)
O: oxygen (most pathogens are aerobic/ survive with air)
M: moisture (keep water activity below .85)

27

what is meat pH

5.6- 5.9

28

mold and yeast pH tolerance

-broad: btwn 2.0 - 8.0

29

rate at which bacteria cells multiply

1 hr: 1 - 4
2 hr: 4 - 16
3 hr: 16 - 64
3 1/2 hr: 64 - 128
(7 generations)

30

aerobic vs anaerobic vs facultative

-aerobic need oxygen to survive (yeasts and molds)
-anaerobic cant have oxygen
-facultative anaerobes can survive with or without oxygen