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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (112)
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1

3 immediate basic needs

-food
-shelter
-clothing

2

what wild animals did men hunt in the early days

buffalo, elk, deer herds

3

10-16,000 years ago

-gathering became cultivation
-freezing in cold regions
-fermentation

4

12,000 years ago

preservation by sun

5

9-12,000 years ago

-first domesticated animals
-dogs, sheep, cattle

6

first animal domesticated

dog

7

first animal domesticated for food

sheep (Middle East)

8

animals domesticated for food timeline

sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, roses, chickens

9

salting and curing

-results from impurities in the salts used for preservation
-salt reduces water content

10

smoking meats

-native Americans used to hang meat from tops of teepees
-hot temp from smoke kills bacteria
-smoke is an acid so it reduces the p, carbonyl, antioxidant component (phenol)

11

3 classes of animal domestication

-adapted animals (companion)
-prey animals (food)
-targeted animals (draft/labor)

12

Biblical/ Torah/ Qu'ran religious food laws

-eat animals wit split hoof and cow cud (no pigs)
-do not eat if found dead
-do not eat birds of prey, scavengers, flying insects
-do not eat shellfish (fins and scales ok)
-do not eat blood

13

Kosher

-fit to consumption
-following Jewish law

14

halal

-allowed
-islamic culture
-pray before slaughter (killed by jews or christians allowed)

15

1635 packing industry

-salt packing meat in barrels
-chloride is toxic, extend shelf life

16

1641 packing industry

-first export begins
-salt packing in Massachusetts

17

2 negatives of salt packing

-brown color
-salty taste
-salt is pro-oxidant

18

war of 1812

Uncle Sam packs meat for the US army

19

salt with sodium nitrate

-certain salts were turning meat red instead of gray
-acts against the bacteria clostridium botulinum

20

1790-1864 packing industry

-canning is developed and understood
-nicolas appert
-used in WWII
-packed together makes it easier to ship more

21

1827 packing industry

-Chicago's 1st slaughter house in operation

22

1867 packing industry

-disassembly line (Chicago)
-line strips it, hangs circus, salt

23

1878 packing industry

-refrigerated railroad car
-no longer needed salting to transport meats

24

1891 packing industry

-1st meat inspection law
-voluntary inspection for meat and livestock

25

1906 act

-meat inspection act
-inspection of ante- and post- mortem product inspection
-sanitary standards
-authorized USDA monitor
-bc of "The Jungle"

26

"The Jungle"

-by Upton Sinclair
-explaining bad things in meat processing

27

1958 act

-humane slaughter act
-avoid unnecessary pain (stun before kill)

28

1991 act

-mandatory seafood inspection

29

1993 Jack-In-The-Box recall

-E. coli in uncooked burgers
-4 deaths
-732 people sick
-$160 million lost

30

2000 act

-HACCP becomes mandatory
-bc of Jack-in-the-Box