Flashcards in Exam 3 Diabetes Deck (72)
Which women in White's classification generally have positive pregnancy outcomes as long as their BG levels are controlled?
Woman has 2 or more abnormal values with normal fasting BS. BG levels are diet controlled
Woman has not been known to have diabetes before pregnancy but requires medication for BG control
Onset of dz occurs after age 20 and duration of illness is less than 10 years
Onset of dz occurs between 10-19 or duration is 10-19 years
Onset of dz occurs at less than 10 years of age or duration of illness greater than 20 years
Pt developed diabetic nephropathy
Pt developed retinitis proliferans
Pt has had a renal transplant
Risk factors for GDM
Family hx, stillbirth, malformed or macrocosmic fetus, obesity, HTN, glycosuria, older than 25
When is GDM usually diagnoses?
2nd half of pregnancy
Who should be screened for GDM?
All preg women not known to have pre gestational DM
What are the 2 different screening methods for GDM?
1. Oral glucose tolerance test
2. 3 hour OGTT
Management of GDM is based on what?
BG not urine glucose
GDM diets are individualized to what?
Increased fetal requirements, pre-pregnancy weight, dietary habits, overall health, ethnic background, lifestyle, stage of pregnancy, nutrition
Dietary goal with GDM
Provide weight gain consistent with normal preg, prevent ketoacidosis, and minimize wide fluctuations of blood glucose levels
First trimester calories for GDM
Second and third trimester calories for GDM
Standard diabetic diet for GDM
3 meals and 1-3 snacks, on time, never skip
Four hours without food intake increases the risk of what?
Bedtime snack to prevent hypoglycemia and ketosis
25 grams of carbs with some protein and fat
Ideal diet breakdown for GDM
25% fat (less than 10% saturated)
Good food groups for GDM
Complex carbs, high in fiber and starch and protein to help regulate the BG level by a more sustained glucose release
Recommended exercise for GDM
Aerobic with resistance training for at least 30 min most days of the week, non-weight bearing activities such as arm exercises or recumbent bicycle
When is the best time to exercise
After meals when glucose level is rising
Insulin needs during 1st trimester
Insulin needs during 2nd and 3rd trimesters
Insulin needs during labor
What is the most commonly prescribed oral agent for GDM?