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Flashcards in Exam 3 Peds GI Deck (81)
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1

When is an infant's GI tract mature?

Age 2

2

Why is the mouth an optimal point of infection entrance?

?

3

What prevents regurgitation of stomach contents into the esophagus?

Lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

4

When is the LES developed?

1 month

5

What is the stomach capacity for newborns?

10-20 mL

6

What is the stomach capacity for infants?

200 mL

7

What is the stomach capacity for a 16 year old?

1,500 mL

8

When do pancreatic enzymes reach adult levels?

2 years

9

Liver at birth

Large, easily palpated

10

If infants have small bowel loss what happens?

Chronic problems with absorption and diarrhea

11

Small intestines at birth

Not fully functionally mature, rapid growth spurts

12

Physical exam order

Inspect and observe
Auscultation
Percussion
Palpation

13

2 categories of food sensitivity

Allergy/hypersensitivity
Intolerance

14

Systemic effects of food sensitivity

Anaphylactic, growth failure

15

GI effects of food sensitivity

Abdominal pain, vomiting, cramping, diarrhea

16

Respiratory effects of food sensitivity

Cough, wheezing, rhinitis, infiltrates

17

Cutaneous effects of food sensitivity

Urticaria, rash, atopic dermatitis

18

What can help prevent food sensitivity?

Breastfeeding
No solids for first 6 mo
No whole milk until 12 mo
No eggs until 24 mo
No peanuts, nuts, fish, seafood for 36 mo

19

How do you identify possible reactions to food?

Add one new food at 5 day intervals

20

Cow's Milk Allergy

Adverse systemic and local GI reaction to cow’s milk protein

21

When can cow's milk allergy be seen?

Within the first 4 months of life

22

What are GI symptoms of cow's milk allergy?

Diarrhea, committing, colic, abd pain

23

What are respiratory symptoms of cow's milk allergy?

Rhinitis, wheezing, sneezing, eczema, excessive crying, pallor

24

How do you diagnose cow's milk allergy?

Occult blood
Serum IgE levels
Allergy testing
Milk restriction followed by challenge test

25

Treatment of cow's milk allergy

Elimination of cow’s milk based formula
Continue until one year old, then small amounts are reintroduced

26

Nursing care management for cow's milk allergy

Prevent and reduce exposure of infants to cow’s milk protein (through exclusive breastfeeding for the first 4-6 months)
Help parents identify signs and symptoms
Teach parents when introduce solid foods to be aware of those that contain milk
Educate on re-introduction of milk products after one year

27

Happens much more quickly in infants and children than adults due to differences in A&P

Dehydration

28

Why must dehydration be recognized quickly?

To prevent hypovolemic shock

29

Occurs whenever the total output of fluid exceeds the total intake

Dehydration

30

Causes of dehydration

Vomiting/Diarrhea
Decreased oral intake
High fever
DKA
Burns, insensible losses
Increased renal excretion