Flashcards in Exam 3 Peds GI Deck (81)
When is an infant's GI tract mature?
Why is the mouth an optimal point of infection entrance?
What prevents regurgitation of stomach contents into the esophagus?
Lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
When is the LES developed?
What is the stomach capacity for newborns?
What is the stomach capacity for infants?
What is the stomach capacity for a 16 year old?
When do pancreatic enzymes reach adult levels?
Liver at birth
Large, easily palpated
If infants have small bowel loss what happens?
Chronic problems with absorption and diarrhea
Small intestines at birth
Not fully functionally mature, rapid growth spurts
Physical exam order
Inspect and observe
2 categories of food sensitivity
Systemic effects of food sensitivity
Anaphylactic, growth failure
GI effects of food sensitivity
Abdominal pain, vomiting, cramping, diarrhea
Respiratory effects of food sensitivity
Cough, wheezing, rhinitis, infiltrates
Cutaneous effects of food sensitivity
Urticaria, rash, atopic dermatitis
What can help prevent food sensitivity?
No solids for first 6 mo
No whole milk until 12 mo
No eggs until 24 mo
No peanuts, nuts, fish, seafood for 36 mo
How do you identify possible reactions to food?
Add one new food at 5 day intervals
Cow's Milk Allergy
Adverse systemic and local GI reaction to cow’s milk protein
When can cow's milk allergy be seen?
Within the first 4 months of life
What are GI symptoms of cow's milk allergy?
Diarrhea, committing, colic, abd pain
What are respiratory symptoms of cow's milk allergy?
Rhinitis, wheezing, sneezing, eczema, excessive crying, pallor
How do you diagnose cow's milk allergy?
Serum IgE levels
Milk restriction followed by challenge test
Treatment of cow's milk allergy
Elimination of cow’s milk based formula
Continue until one year old, then small amounts are reintroduced
Nursing care management for cow's milk allergy
Prevent and reduce exposure of infants to cow’s milk protein (through exclusive breastfeeding for the first 4-6 months)
Help parents identify signs and symptoms
Teach parents when introduce solid foods to be aware of those that contain milk
Educate on re-introduction of milk products after one year
Happens much more quickly in infants and children than adults due to differences in A&P
Why must dehydration be recognized quickly?
To prevent hypovolemic shock
Occurs whenever the total output of fluid exceeds the total intake