Flashcards in 1 Deck (33)
Round ligament pain
The round ligament connects uterus to groin. As the baby grows, it stretches and can strain, causing normal pain
What can you teach to help with round ligament pain?
Flex your hips, exercise, avoid sudden movements, stretch hips, take medicine, apply warmth
4 phases of menstrual cycle
Menstrual, follicular, ovulation, luteal
What is the hormone of pregnancy?
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
Functions of amniotic fluid
-Maintains constant body temp
-Movement for muscle development
When does ovulation occur?
Causes of amenorrhea
-Problem in central hypothalamic-pituitary axis
What is the difference between primary and secondary amenorrhea?
Primary is associated with ovulation and does not have underlying pathology. Secondary develops later in life and is associated with a pelvic patho
S/S of menopause
Hot flashes, night sweats, painful intercourse bc dry vag, anxiety/irritability
Risk factors for osteoporosis
-Increase in age
-Postmenopause without hormone replacement
-Small frame, thin bones
-Caucasian or asian
-Less calcium and vit D
Mammary duct ectasia
-Inflammation of ducts behind nipple. Discharge is thick, sticky, white, brown, green , or purple. Burning pain and itching or a palpable mass behind nipple
-Rare and benign condition developing within the terminal nipple ducts, unknown cause, lesion too small to be palpated
Causes for male and female infertility
Male: hormone disorder, testicle factors, sperm transport
Female: ovarian, tubal/peritoneal, uterine, vaginal/cervical
Treatments for infertility
Nonmed: life change, nutrition, alcohol and drug cessation, weight
Meds: Clomid, FSH, hCG, GnRH, progesterone
Surgical: removal of ovary tumor, hysterosalpingopraphy, fallopian tube repair
Fertility awareness methods
Natural family planning, calendar rhythm method, standard days method, basal drop of body temp, cervical mucus ovulation detection method (mucus thin/stretchy)
-Must be fitted
-Angle of uterus, vag muscle tone, and shape of cervix is important for proper fit
Applied to lower abdomen, upper outer arm, buttocks, upper torso, not breasts, must be 198 pounds or less
A ring inserted into vagina to release hormones for three weeks, then taken out for a week
"T-shaped" devices made of flexible plastic. A health care provider inserts an IUD into a woman's uterus to prevent pregnancy.
Reactive Nonstress Test
Indicates that blood flow and oxygen to the fetus is adequate
Should fundal height equal weeks gestation?
Yes, in centimeters
Why are pregnant pts at risk for DVTs?
-Inactivity or injury to veins after delivery
-Changes in hormones and blood
-Decreased blood flow, fetus pushes on veins
Reliable predictor of fetal well-being, maybe considered a physical exam of fetus, including determination of vitals, used frequently in late 2nd and 3rd trimesters
Components of a BPP
Fetal breathing movements, fetal tone, fetal HR pattern by means of a nonstress test, amniotic fluid index
When is an amniocentesis performed and why?
After 14 weeks of pregnancy, to obtain amniotic fluid with contains fetal cells to assess pulmonary maturity or diagnose a fetal hemolytic dz
When is a CVS performed and why?
Between 10 and 13 weeks, removes tissues form fetal portion of placenta to reflect genetic makeup of fetus
When is a PUBS performed and why?
2nd and 3rd trimester, used for fetal blood sampling and transfusion to diagnose inherited blood disorder, infection, assess and treat isoimmunization and thrombocytopenia in fetus, karyotyping of malformed fetus
What pts need a nonstress test?
Diabetes, HTN, IUGR, multiple gestation, oligohydramnios, renal dz, decreased fetal movement, previous fetal death, postterm pregnancy, lupus
In what pts is a contraction stress test contraindicated?
Preterm labor, placenta previa, reduced cervical competence, multiple gestation, previous classical C-Section