Exam 4 Cardio Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 4 Cardio Deck (44)
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1

Most common way to diagnose CHD?

Echo, can be done in utero

2

Cardiac Cath

Invasive, cath is guided with fluoroscopy to the heart, dye is injected and the path through the heart is followed

3

Complications of Catheterization

Hemorrhage, fever, n/v, loss of pulse in cathed extremity, transient dysrhythmias

4

Pre op cath

Sedation, NPO, check allergies, locate and mark pulses

5

Post op cath

ECG monitor rath and rhythm, BP, pulse ox, frequent monitoring of extremity (pulse, color, temp) I&O

6

What do you do if bleeding occurs at cath insertion site?

Do not remove dressing. Hold direct pressure 1 in above site, lay child flat, call doc

7

Leg position after cath

Keep straight for 4-8 hrs

8

Cath insertion post op care

Keep free from infection (apply diapers) keep clean and dry, pt may shower only. Avoid strenuous exercise, but may attend school

9

Two types of congenital heart dz

Congestive heart failure and Hypoxemia

10

Normal pressure flow of heart

Left side has a higher pressure than right side.

11

Normal resistance of circulation

Pulmonary circulation has less resistance than systemic circulation

12

Increased pulmonary blood flow leads to what

Congestive heart failure, acyanotic

13

Decreased pulmonary blood flow leads to what

Cyanosis

14

Obstruction to blood flow out of the heart leads to what

Congestive heart failure, acyanotic

15

Mixed blood flow leads to what

Cyanosis, varied s/s

16

The inability of the heart to pump an adequate amount of blood to the systemic circulation

Congestive heart failure

17

When does CHF occur in children?

Secondary to structural problems that cause increased blood volume and pressure in the heart

18

Right sided heart failure

Right ventricle can't pump effectively into pulmonary artery

19

Left sided heart failure

Left ventricle can't pump effectively into systemic circulation

20

Right sided heart failure causes increased pressure where?

In the right atrium and systemic venous circulation

21

Left sided heart failure causes increased pressure where?

In the left atrium and pulmonary veins

22

Manifestations of right sided heart failure

HTN, hypatosplenomegaly, edema

23

Manifestations of left sided heart failure

Lungs become congested causing pulmonary edema

24

Polycythemia

Increased number of RBC to increase the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Increases blood viscosity and increases risk for clots

25

Polycythemia occurs with what?

Hypoxia

26

Abnormal opening between the atria which allows blood from the high pressure LA to shut into the RA

Atrial septal defect

27

Abnormal opening between the right and left ventricle which causes left to right shunting

Ventricular septal defect

28

A low atrial septal defect and high ventricular septal defect, clefts of the mitral and tricuspid valves causing blood to flow between all chambers of the heart

AV canal defect

29

Failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close within the first few weeks of life, causing blood to flow from high pressure aorta to low pressure pulmonary artery

PDA

30

Narrowing near the insertion of the ductus arteriosus leading to increased pressure to the hear and upper extremities and decreased pressure to the body and lower extremities

Coarctation of the aorta