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Flashcards in exam 4 Deck (58)
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1

what is the function and location of salivary amylase

breaks down starch into maltose; mouth

2

what is the function and location of gastric glands

secretes gastric juices; stomach

3

what is the function and location of pepsin

breakdown proteins into polypeptides; stomach

4

what is the function and location of pepsinogen

inactive form of pepsin converted to pepsin by HCl; stomach

5

what is the function and location of mucosal glands

secretes mucous; intestine lining

6

what is the function and location of the brush border enzymes

breakdown of peptides and disaccharides into monomers; small intestine

7

what is the function and location of duodenal glands

secretes mucous neutralizes gastric acid in chyme; small intestine

8

what is the function and location of pancreatic amylase

breaks down starch into maltose; small intestine

9

what is the function and location of pancreatic lipase

breaks down triglycerides into monoglycerides; small intestine

10

what is the function and location of enterokinase

converts trypsinogen to trypsin; small intestine

11

what is the function and location of trypsin

breaks down large polypeptides to small polypeptides and peptides; small intestine

12

what is the function and location of chymotrypsin

breakdown of large polypeptides into small polypeptides and peptides; small intestine

13

what is the function and location of carboxypeptidase

breakdown of large polypeptides into small polypeptides and peptides; small intestine

14

what is the function and location of nuclease

breakdown nucleic acid into nucleotides; small intestine

15

Tidal volume

TD; air amount inhaled and exhaled under normal resting conditions (normal breathing)

16

Inspiratory Reserve volume

IRV; amount of air forcefully inhaled after normal (TV) inspiration

17

expiratory reserve volume

ERV; amount of air forcefully exhaled after normal (TV) expiration

18

Vital Capacity

VC; maximum inspiration followed by maximum expiration

19

How do you measure each volume?

Spirometer

20

spirometer

only allows us to measure air exhaled

21

phrenic nerve

sends info to diaphragm (contract/relax)

22

what happens during inspiration

diaphragm contracts/lowered; volume increases and pressure decreases

23

what happens during expiration

diaphragm relaxes/elevated; volume decreases and pressure increases

24

experiment on color change/ time change before exercise and after exercise

the rate of CO2 production increases; or rate of color change increases

25

what are some obstructed diseases; factors that affect respiratory volume

COPD, asthma, and emphysema

26

when they blew into the pH indicator it did what

it turned from pink to clear; the pH dropped

27

respiratory volume:

decreases with age and increases with height

28

to find total lung capacity(TLC)

TLC= TV+IRV+ERV+RV

29

to find vital capacity(VC)

VC= TV+IRV+ERV

30

to find IRV

IRV= VC-(TV+ERV)

31

what kind of epithelium does respiratory membrane/alveoli have

simple squamous epithelium, so CO2 and O2 can diffuse by simple diffusion

32

what is the pH indicator called?

phenolphthalein

33

What does changing the radius of the airway do to the FEV1, and VC and why

it is obstructive which messes with airway and reduces respiratory volume; it decreases FEV1 and decreases vital capacity

34

what does surfactants do and what effect does that have on breathing? When is lack of a surfactant a problem?

they have to be present in the lungs and they allow for smooth gaseous exchange and reduces friction; without that the tissue surrounding the air sacks ( the alveoli) in the lung stick together

35

what happens when there is a tare in the pleural cavity? Why? how can it be corrected?

deflation of lungs and they will collapse; have to reinflate the lungs

36

what does hyperventilation and rebreathing do to blood pH and why?

produce too much CO2, and you take in more O2 to balance it out; it helps to stabilize blood pH and make it higher

37

how does emphysema, asthma and exercise affect respiratory volumes?

decreases respiratory volumes

38

what do inhalers do to help asthma sufferers?

helps to deliver medication to clear airway to allow for easy gas exchange

39

what prevents food from entering the larynx?

epiglottis

40

this organ secretes many enzymes into the duodenum to assist in digestion

pancreas

41

when pressure is high and volume is low in thoracic cavity

expiration

42

muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities

diaphragm

43

where oral and nasal cavities meet

laryngopharynx

44

Larynx

control voice

45

residual volume

amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced expiration

46

total lung capacity

maximum amount of air contained in lungs after a maximum inspiratory effort

47

amylase and water at 37 degrees celsius- what was the K/iodine color and was it positive or negative

yellow and negative because starch was not present

48

amylase and water at 37 degrees celsius- what was the benedict's solution color and was it positive or negative

it was blue and negative because there was no reducing sugar/ maltose present

49

starch and water at 37 degrees celsius- what was the K/iodine color and was it positive or negative starch test?

blue/black and positive because there was starch present because water cannot break it down

50

starch and water at 37 degrees celsius- what was the benedict's solution color and was it positive or negative for reducing sugar/ maltose?

it was blue and negative for reducing sugars/maltose because starch was not broken down so reducing sugar was not present.

51

maltose and water at 37 degrees celsius- what was the K/iodine test color and was it positive or negative for starch

it was yellow and negative because starch was not present, maltose was

52

maltose and water at 37 degrees celsius- what was the benedict's solution color and was it positive or negative

it was orange and positive which means that maltose/reducing sugars is present

53

amylase that was boiled and starch at 37 degrees celsius- what was the K/iodine color and was it a positive or negative test?

it was blue/black and positive because starch was present and amylase was denatured and not able to break down starch into maltose.

54

amylase that was boiled for 10 min and starch at 37 degrees celsius - what was the benedict's solution and was it positive or negative

it was blue and negative because maltose/ reducing sugars was not present because amylase was denatured and not able to break down the starch into maltose

55

amylase and starch at 37 degrees- what was the K/iodine test color and was it positive or negative

it was yellow and negative because amylase broke down starch into maltose and starch was not present

56

amylase and starch at 37 degrees- what was the benedict's solution color and was it positive or negative

it was orange and positive because maltose was present and amylase broke down starch into maltose/reducing sugar

57

amylase and starch at 0 degrees celsius- what was the K/iodine color and was it positive or negative

the color was yellow and negative because starch was not present amylase broke it down and was not affected by the lower temperature

58

amylase and starch at 0 degrees celsius- what was the benedicts color and was it positive or negative?

the color was orange and positive for reducing sugar/maltose because amylase broke down starch into maltose/reducing sugar