Exam #6: Learning & Memory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #6: Learning & Memory Deck (33):
1

Who is HM? What is important about HM's case?

- HM had bilateral temporal lobe seizures
- Removed hippocampus, amygdala, and part of temporal cortex
- Seizure improved but he had no short term memory
- Long term memory was intact

2

What is the difference between associative & non-associative learning? What are the different categories of learning that fall under those two broad labels?

Associative= an association between two stimuli or a behavior and a stimulus is learned.
- Passive
- Operant= positive vs. negative reinforcement

Non-associative= relatively permanent change in the strength of response to a single stimulus due to repeated exposure to that stimulus
- Simple= habituation & sensitization
- Complex= imprinting & observational

3

What is memory?

Encoding, storage, and retrieval of learned information

****Note that memory is stored as an interpreted experience

4

What are the stages of memory formation?

1) Sensory input & attention leads to:
2) Short-term memory & encoding leads to:
3) Long-term memory

5

What is the role of attention in memory?

Attention is required for short-term memory

6

What is required for transition from short-term memory to long-term memory? What is the process called?

This is called encoding and requires rehersal

7

What is the difference between short-term and long-term memory?

Short= seconds, minutes, & hours

Long= minutes- years

8

What is working memory?

This is the process of holding information for basic cognitive activity

9

What brain structure mediates working memory?

Prefrontal cortex

****Note that this matures into the their decade of life

10

What are the two major qualitative categories of memory?

Declarative (explicit)
Non-declarative (implicit)

11

What are the different types of declarative memories?

- Episodic (events)
- Semantic (facts)

12

What brain structures are responsible for declarative memory?

Hippocampus
Temporal lobe
Cortex

13

What are the types of non-declarative memory?

Priming
Procedural
Associative

14

What is priming? What part of the brain is associated with priming?

Associating a stimuli with a memory, and having the stimuli spark the memory

Neocortex

15

What is procedural memory? What part of the brain is associated with procedural memory?

How to perform tasks e.g. how to ride a bike

Striatum

16

What are the types of associative memory?

Emotional
Motor learning

17

What is emotional memory? What part of the brain is associated with emotional memory?

Emotional responses to situations

Amygdala

18

What is motor learning? What part of the brain is associated with motor memory?

"Muscle memory"

Cerebellum

19

What are the different domains of memory?

Cognitive= to recall, calculate, discuss...etc.
Psychomotor= to dance, swim, ski, drive...etc.
Affective= to like something or someone

20

What type of circuitry "holds" working information?

Recurrent circuitry

21

What is a memory engram?

A memory trace i.e. a pattern of activity unique to the record i.e. memory

22

What is codification?

Storing a memory in context

23

What is LTP?

Long Term Potentiation
- An enduring increase in synaptic efficacy that results from high frequency stimulation of an afferent pathway

24

What receptor underlies LTP?

NMDA receptor (Glu)

25

Where can LTP occur besides the hippocampus?

Amygdala

26

What are the structural changes that can occur to strengthen LTP?

- Gene expression
- New synapses formed
- Activation of previously silent synapses

27

What are the two examples of use dependent brain organization? What is the difference?

Brail Proofreader= short term plasticity

London Taxi Diver= spatial learning

28

What are the processing stages of memory?

1) Acquisition
2) Rehearsal
3) Consolidation
4) Storage throughout the cortex

29

How are sleep and memory related?

During sleep, information is transferred from the hippocampus to the neocortex during Slow-Wave-Sleep

30

How can you increase your recall of information?

Practice/rehersal

31

What is fear extinction?

Active "forgetting"

- Shock animal with tone
- Provide tone without shock enough times
- No fear response will follow

32

What is the mechanisms underlying fear extinction?

PFC inhibits the fear response

33

What is the difference between anterograde and retrograde amnesia?

Anterograde= inability to form new memories
- HM
- Cannot CONSOLIDATE

Retrograde= inability to recall previously stored memories

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