Flashcards in Exam #6: Learning & Memory Deck (33):
Who is HM? What is important about HM's case?
- HM had bilateral temporal lobe seizures
- Removed hippocampus, amygdala, and part of temporal cortex
- Seizure improved but he had no short term memory
- Long term memory was intact
What is the difference between associative & non-associative learning? What are the different categories of learning that fall under those two broad labels?
Associative= an association between two stimuli or a behavior and a stimulus is learned.
- Operant= positive vs. negative reinforcement
Non-associative= relatively permanent change in the strength of response to a single stimulus due to repeated exposure to that stimulus
- Simple= habituation & sensitization
- Complex= imprinting & observational
What is memory?
Encoding, storage, and retrieval of learned information
****Note that memory is stored as an interpreted experience
What are the stages of memory formation?
1) Sensory input & attention leads to:
2) Short-term memory & encoding leads to:
3) Long-term memory
What is the role of attention in memory?
Attention is required for short-term memory
What is required for transition from short-term memory to long-term memory? What is the process called?
This is called encoding and requires rehersal
What is the difference between short-term and long-term memory?
Short= seconds, minutes, & hours
Long= minutes- years
What is working memory?
This is the process of holding information for basic cognitive activity
What brain structure mediates working memory?
****Note that this matures into the their decade of life
What are the two major qualitative categories of memory?
What are the different types of declarative memories?
- Episodic (events)
- Semantic (facts)
What brain structures are responsible for declarative memory?
What are the types of non-declarative memory?
What is priming? What part of the brain is associated with priming?
Associating a stimuli with a memory, and having the stimuli spark the memory
What is procedural memory? What part of the brain is associated with procedural memory?
How to perform tasks e.g. how to ride a bike
What are the types of associative memory?
What is emotional memory? What part of the brain is associated with emotional memory?
Emotional responses to situations
What is motor learning? What part of the brain is associated with motor memory?
What are the different domains of memory?
Cognitive= to recall, calculate, discuss...etc.
Psychomotor= to dance, swim, ski, drive...etc.
Affective= to like something or someone
What type of circuitry "holds" working information?
What is a memory engram?
A memory trace i.e. a pattern of activity unique to the record i.e. memory
What is codification?
Storing a memory in context
What is LTP?
Long Term Potentiation
- An enduring increase in synaptic efficacy that results from high frequency stimulation of an afferent pathway
What receptor underlies LTP?
NMDA receptor (Glu)
Where can LTP occur besides the hippocampus?
What are the structural changes that can occur to strengthen LTP?
- Gene expression
- New synapses formed
- Activation of previously silent synapses
What are the two examples of use dependent brain organization? What is the difference?
Brail Proofreader= short term plasticity
London Taxi Diver= spatial learning
What are the processing stages of memory?
4) Storage throughout the cortex
How are sleep and memory related?
During sleep, information is transferred from the hippocampus to the neocortex during Slow-Wave-Sleep
How can you increase your recall of information?
What is fear extinction?
- Shock animal with tone
- Provide tone without shock enough times
- No fear response will follow
What is the mechanisms underlying fear extinction?
PFC inhibits the fear response