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Flashcards in excercise physiology Deck (44)
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1

Physical activity

any bodily movement that comes from the contraction of skeletal muscle and increases energy expenditure

2

Four major components of physical fitness

muscular strength, cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, body composition

3

muscular strength

maximal force that a muscle or muscle group can exert duringa contraction (muscular endurance is the second part) (walkin up stairs, shoveling)

4

cardiovascular

mxaimal capacity of the heart blood and lungs to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the working muscles so energy cna be produced (swimming, running)

5

Flexibility

the ability to move joints through their normal full range of motion

6

Body composition

the makeup of the body in relation to lean body mass(muscles, bones skin, organs) and boy fat (adipose tissue)

7

essential fat needed for men, and women

2-5% and 10-13%

8

cardiovascular and respiratory system

help convert fat and carbs into ATP

9

three basic processe that must interact to provide adequate blood to tissues

pulmonary ventilation(get oxygen into blood), cardiac output(getting blood to tissues), extracting oxygen from blood to complete metabolic production of ATP

10

pulmonary ventilation is a function of

depth (tidal volume) and rate of breathing

11

people with ___ cannot move enough air through their lungs to oxygenate blood

asthma or emphysema

12

anemia

people with low hemoglobin (protein that bonds to oxygen in blood) and cannot carry as much oxygen

13

Delivery of blood to active cells is based on cardiac output (equation?)_

Cardiac Output (Q)= HR x SV (at rest 5 liters per minute, exercise 25 liters per minute)

14

SV

Stroke volume, quantity of blood pumped per heart beat

15

cardiovascular disease

percentae of end diastolic voume that is ejected with each contraction of the herat is reduced after loss of muscle of tissue

16

ischemia

inadquate blood flow to the herat becuase of narrowed coronary arteries

17

aerobic production fo ATIP takes place in the

mitochondria

18

bioenergetics

foods are made up of protein, fats and carbs, digestion breaks fown into glucose, fatty acids and amino acids, which are absorbed to metabolically active cells to produce ATP or are stored as glycogen

19

Resipiratory exchange ratio (RER)

the proportion of fat or carbohydrate that is beinged used for fuel at different excercise intensities (RER= CO2 produced/ O consumed)

20

excellent measure of ones ability to preform sustained endurance excercise

oxygen consumption

21

VO2 max

maximal aerobic capacity, when oxygen consumption is measured at maximal levels of exertion (mL of O consumed per kg of body weight per min)

22

steady state

when the energy needs are being met aerobically

23

parasympathetic nervous system

at rest, keeps HR, blood pressure and metabolism low (but when excercising this is inhibited and adrenaline sets in)

24

VO2 and excercise

VO2 inceases when exercising but does not immediately meet physiological requirement resulting in oxygen deficit for a while (takes 2-4mins to meet needs, in mean time there is anaerobic)

25

Excess post exercise consumption

as everything returns to resting levels, oxygen consumption decreases but still elevated, energy produced during this time replenishes phosphagens

26

anaerobic threshold

when exercise intensity is so high, muscles supplement ATP production via anaerobic, if this is exceeded lactate accumulates and hyperventialtion occurs (attempting to breathe out more CO2 since there is less O)

27

VT1 and VT2

first ventilatory threshold (first time lactate begins to accumulate and hyperventialtion relative to VO2), second ventilatory threshold (lactate is rapidly increasing and hyperventaliation relative to extra CO2 produced)

28

SAID principle

specific adpation to imposed demands (conept is that the body will adpt to the specific challenges imposed upon it)

29

two kinds of neurons

sensory (get impulses from skin to spinal cord and brain in CNS) and motor neurons (conduct impulses from CNS to muscles and such for movement)

30

hypertophy

muscle building, increase in muscle size is dues to proliferation of actin and myosin myoflaments