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Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (26)
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1

calories in carbohydrates

4 per gram

2

Carbohydrates

if not immediately used, are stored as glycogen, and if more carbohydrates than the body stores in as fat

3

calories in protein

4 per gram

4

Protein functions

formation of brain, nervous system, transport mechanism for iron, vitamins and mineral, and key to acid base fluid balance

5

calories in fat

9 per gram (most energy dense)

6

Dietary Reference Intake

determines optimal amount of intake

7

LDL and HDL

low denisty lipoprotein (bad cholesterol), high density lipoprotein (good cholesterol, removes excess cholesterol from arterie)

8

vitamins

organic, non caloric must be consumed through food, humans need 13 vitamins (water and water insoluble)

9

fat soluble vitamins

A,D,E,K and are stored in the liver or adipose tissue

10

Minerals

can be found in food and in the body, minerals can interfere with one another,

11

Major themes of Dietary Guidelines

balancing calories to achieve and maintain a healthy weight, foods to reduce, nutrients to increase, building healthy eating patterns

12

Recommended Dietary Allowances

the levels of intake of essential nutraints that are judged to be adequate to meet the known needs of a person

13

calories per serving

40 is low, 100 is moderate, 400 is high

14

how to calculate resting metabolic rate

Mifflin-St.jeor Equation (women 9.99x wt(kg) +6,25x ht(cm)-4.92xage-161

15

RMR represents the number of calories needed to

to fuel ventilation, blood circulation adn temperature regulation, digestion

16

Glycemic Index

ranks carbohydrates based on their blood glucose reponse (High GI foods break down quickly for glucose spike)

17

hyponatremia

severely reduced blood sodium concentration resulting from overhydration

18

fluid intake during exercise

2 hours prior (500-600mL), every 10 mins during (200-300mL), following exercise (consume same amount of fluid lost in sweat)

19

Coronary Heart Disease

develops from an accumulation of fat and cholesterol in the arteries that supply oxygen to heart (can lead to heart attack)

20

To improve heart health

eat lots of fruits and veggies, limit saturated fats, keep trans fats as low as possible

21

What is BMI of obese person

BMI of > 30kg/m2 (symptoms type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, sleep apnea)

22

Hypertension

having a systolic blood pessure >140mmHg and a diostolic blood pressure of >90mmHG (can rupture arterie cuasing no blood to brain and causing stroke)

23

DASH eating plan

can reduce blood pressure, it is low in cholesterol, saturated fats and total fat.

24

Type 1 Diabets

results from the ina bility of the pancreas to secrete insulin

25

Type 2 Diabetes

results from the cells decreased ability to respond to insulin

26

Osteoperosis

decrease of bone density, can lead to fractures