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Flashcards in Exotoxins Deck (18):

Corynebacterium diptheriae
gram + rod

-Diptheria Toxin (ADP ribosylating AB-toxin.
-B/binding-endocytosis. binds to EGF receptors on cardiac and neural cells
A/active-attaches ADP-ribosyl to EF-2
-MOA: inactive elongation factor (EF-2)
--> Pharyngitis w pseudomembranes in throat, severe lymphadenopathy (bull neck) --> (severe, death) Cardiomyopathy*
-the bacteria look like cells w polar granules/dark staining w aniline.

-Vaccine immunity: IgG against the B-binding unit of the Diptheria Exotoxin


Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Gram - rod

-Exotoxin A (ADP ribosylating AB-toxin. B/binding-endocytosis, A/active-attaches ADP-ribosyl)
-MOA: inactivate elongation factor (EF-2)
--> Host cell death


Shigella spp
Gram - rod, Lactose - , Oxidase -
SOL (shit outta luck, literally shit - and no oxidase or lactose fermenting abilities)

-Shiga Toxin (ST)
-Inactivate 60S ribosome by removing adenine from rRNA
--> GI mucosal damage --> dysentery
-ST also enhances cytokine release --> HUS
-Shigella invades host cells
-as little as 10 cells of any shigella spp can cause infection***


Enterhohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC - O157:H7)
Gram - rod

-Shiga-like Toxin (SLT)
MOA: inactivate 60S ribosome by removing adenine from rRNA
--> SLT enhances cytokine release --> HUS (TAU - thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic Anemia, Uremia/renal damage)
-EHEC does not invade host cells (but does cause bloody diarrhea)


Enterotoxigenic E. coli ETEC
Gram - rod

Heat-Labile toxin (LT)
-MOA: overactivates adenylyl cyclase ( incr cAMP) --> Cl- secretion
--> Watery diarrhea.

Labile in the Air (adenylyl) and it rains in the air, and rain is like secreting Cl-
Stable on the Ground (Guanylate cyclase)


Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)
Gram - rod

Heat stable toxin (ST)
-MOA: overactivates gunylate cyclase (incr cGMP) --> decr resorption of NaCl
--> water diarrhea

Labile in the Air (adenylyl cyclate) - and it rains in the air, like secreting Cl-
Stable on the Ground (Guanylyate cyclase)


Bacillus anthracis
Gram + rod

Edema Factor
-MOA: mimics adenylate cyclase (inc cAMP)
--> Edematous borders of black eschar in cutaneous anthrax)


Vibirio cholerae

Cholera toxin
-MOA: Overactivates adenylate cyclase --> --> incr Cl- secretion
--> voluminous "Rice-water" diarrhea


Bordetella pertussis

Pertussis toxin
-MOA: Overactivates adenlylate cyclase by disabling Gi, also impairs neutrophil chemotaxis/phagocytosis/ox-metabolism to permit survival of microbe
--> Whooping cough (whoops on inspiration, cough on expiration)
"100 day cough" in adults


Clostridium tetani
Gram - rod, ANaerobe

-MOA: Cleaves SNARE protein required for NT release
-->Rigid paralysis, "lock jaw". Toxin prevents release of inhibitor NT in spinal cord (GABA and GLYCINE)
-see rods w endospore on one end: TENNIS raquets

SNARE the win in the TENNIS Match (active - rigid paralysis)


Clostridium botulinum
Gram - rod, ANaerobe

Botulinum toxin
-MOA: Cleaves SNARE protein required for NT release
--> Flaccid paralysis, floppy baby. Toxin prevents release of stimulatory (Ach) signal at NM jxns
--> The THREE D's: Diplopia (double vision), Dysphagia, Dysphonia (hoarse voice)


Clostridium perfringens
Gram - rod, ANaerobe

Alpha toxin or Phospholipase C
-MOA: Phospholipase that degrades tissue and cell membranes
--> myonecrosis ("gas gangrene") and hemolysis ("Double zone" of hemolysis on blood agar)

Alpha Cadet in war causes double zone of hemolysis and gas gangrene by inhibiting major phosphlipase


Streptococus pyogenes
Exotoxin: Streptolysin O
Group A strep, gram + cocci

-MOA: degrades cell membrane
--> lyse rbcs, contributes to Beta-hemolysis
-Host antibodies against toxin (ASO) use to diagnose rheumatic fever


Staph aureus
Gram + cocci, Catalase/Coagulase+

Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin (TSST-1)
-MOA: SUPERANTIGEN. Bring MHC2 and TCR in proximity outside of antigen binding site --> overwhelming release of IFN-gamma (from macrophages) and IL-2 (from t cells)
--> Fever, rash, SHOCK. Desquamation of skin 1-2 days after onset.
-Assoc w tampons and nasal packing


Staph aureus
Exfoliative toxin
Gram + cocci, Catalase/Coagulase+

Scalded Skin Syndrome


Staph aureus
Gram + cocci, Catalase/Coagulase+

Food poisoning


Strep pyogenes
Exotoxin A
Group A strep, gram + cocci

-MOA: Bring MHC2 and TCR in proximity outside of antigen binding site --> mass release of IFN-gamma and IL-2
--> Fever, Rash, SHOCK



cAMP (mnemonic: those that incr cAMP levels)

c = Cholera (Vibiro cholerae)
A = Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)
M = Montezuma's revenge (popular name for ETEC - LT)
P = Pertussis (Bordetella pertussis)