Viruses/DNA viruses Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Viruses/DNA viruses Deck (35):
1

Reassortment

Viruses w segmented genomes exchange segments
-"high frequency recombination"
(e.g. Influenza --> worldwise pandemics)

2

Complementation

When 1 of 2 viruses that infects a cell has a mutation such that it makes a non-fxnal protein
-the Non-mutated virus will make a fxnal version and they can share it.

3

Phenotypic mixing

-2 viruses infect cell at same time
-Genome of virus A gets partially/totally coated by virus B surface proteins
-Type B coat determins tropism/infectivity of hybrid virus
--> Infxn --> Progen will then have type A coat bc it's encoded in type A genetic material

4

Killed

Rabies
Influenza (IM)
Salk Polio (IM)
Hepatitis A

5

Live vaccines

Smallpox
Yellow Fever
Chickenpox/VZV
Sabin's Polio (oral)
MMR
Influenza (NASAL)

6

recombinant vaccines

Hepatitis B (HBsAg)
HPV (6, 11, 16, 18)

7

DNA viruses that are linear

All but Papilloma-, Polyoma-, Hepadnaviruses
CIRCULAR

8

DNA viruses that are double stranded

All but PARVOVIRUS

9

Positive stranded RNA viruses

I went to a RETRO (retrovirus) TOGA (togavirus) party where I drank FLAVored (Flavivirus) CORONA (Coronavirus) and ate HIPPY (hepevirus) CALIfornia (calicivirus) PICkles (picornavirus)

10

RNA viruses that are single stranded

All but REOVIRUS

double the naked, ds RNA trouble in REO Nevada!

11

Naked viral genome infectivity

-Infective: dsDNA (except Poxviruses and HBV) and +strand ssRNA
-Require polymerases in virion: -strand ssRNA and dsRNA

12

DNA viruses: replicate in the_____

Nucleus, all but Poxvirus

13

viruses that are Haploid

All of them (1 copy of DNA or RNA) except RETROVIRUSES (2 idential ssRNA=diploid)

14

Naked viruses

Give PAPP smears and CPR to a naked Heppy

Papillomavirus - DNA
Adenovirus - DNA
Parvovirus - ssDNA
Polyomavirus - DNA
Calcivirus - RNA
Picornavirus - RNA
Reovirus - RNA
Hepevirus - RNA

15

RNA viruses: replicate in the ___

Cytoplasma, (excpet influenza and retroviruses)

16

Enveloped viruses acqure envelop from....

the Plasma membrane!
except HERPES which gets its envelope from the NUCLEAR membrane.

17

DNA viruses that are Icosahedral

All but POXvirus

18

DNA viruses (names)

DNA viruses are HHAPPPPy
Hepadna
Herpes
Adeno
Pox
Parvo
Papilloma
Polyoma

19

Hepadnavirus

partail dds DNA, circular
Enveloped
e.g. HEPATITIS B (not a Retrovirus, but has reverse transcriptase activity)
-replication of HBV: double stranded DNA --> Template + RNA --> Double stranded DNA

(HEPadna for HEPatitis B)

20

DNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus

All but POXvirus (has it's on DNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase

21

Adenovirus

dsDNA, linear, NAKED
--> Febrile pharyngitis (sore throat, nasal congestion, enlarged cervical nodes)
-->Pneumonia
-->Conjunctivitis-PINK EYE (which you get from rubbing up against NAKED people)

22

Herepesvirus

dsDNA, linear, Enveloped

23

Papillomavirus

dsDNA, CIRCULAR, NAKED
=HPV --> warts (1,2,6,11), CIN, cervical cancer (16,18)

24

Parvovirus

ssDNA, linear NEG, NAKED. the smallest*
=B19 virus
-->aplastic crisis in sickle cell
-->"slap cheek" in children (5th ds),
-->Maternal --> Fetal: RBC destruction (hydrops fetalis), pure RBC aplasia
--> Adults: Rheumatoid arthritis that resolves spontaneously in few weeks (affects knees, ankles, metacarpal, PIPs - just like RA)
-attaches to rbcs by P antigen. Immature rbcs are more vulnerable, hence targets are: adult bone marrow and fetal liver
-viral replication --> cell death

25

Poxvirus

dsDNA, linear, Enveloped. Largest DNA virus*
=Smallpox
=Vaccinia --> Cowpox ("milkmaid's blisters")
=Molluscum contagiosum* (so large you could squeeze them out!)

26

Polyomavirus

dsDNA, CIRCULAR, NAKED
=JC virus--> progressive multifocal leukoenceophalopathy (PML) in HIV. causes demyelination by infxn of oligodendrocytes (faster >MS)
=BK virus --> transplant pts, targets Kidneys

JC: Junky Cerebrum. BK: Bad Kidney

Jesus Christ and Brian Kay are POLYamourous and don't wear their wedding rings (naked dsDNA, circular)

27

HSV-2

dsDNA, linear, enveloped
-Sexual contact, perinatal
--> Herpes genitalis, neonatal herpes (ulcerating vesicles), can cause Meningitis
-Dormant in the SACRAL ganglia

28

HSV-1

dsDNA, linear, enveloped
-secreted by respiratory secretions, saliva
-Primary infxn --> Gingiovostomatis/GINGIVAL ULCERS, Keratoconjunctivitis (cornea-itis and conjunctivitis), Temporal Lobe encephalitis*, Herpes Labialis (grouped, confluent vesciles, erythematous rim)
-Reactivation --> Cold Sores
-latent in TRIGEMINAL ganglia (mostly affects the mouth, eyes, lips, temples!...orallobe)
-Kids w gingival ulcers, cervical lymphadenopathy, swollen gums**

29

VZV (HHV-3)

ds DNA, linear, enveloped
-spread by respiratory secretions
--> Chicken pox (rash on trunk --> periphery) and shingles, encephalitis, pneumonia
-Latent in DORSAL ROOT or TRIGEMINAL ganglia

30

CMV (HHV-5)

dsDNA, linear, enveloped
-spread: congenital, transfusion, sex, saliva, urine, transplant
-->Congenital, "MONO" (neg monspot)
-Reactivation --> pneumonia, retinits (in AIDS, cotton-wool spots)*
-"owl eye" inclusions
-Latent in MONONUCLEAR cells
-binds to CELLULAR INTEGRINS

31

EBV (HHV-4)

dsDNA, linear, enveloped
-spread by respiratory, saliva
-->Mono, Burkitt's/Hodgkins, Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
-latent in B cells (in 90% of us)
-Reactivation in Immunosuppresed(HIV**) --> NHL/DLBCL/Burkitts

32

Roseola (HHV-6)

dsDNA, linear, enveloped
-->Roseola: high fevers for days (can cause seizure) --> diffuse macular rash on trunk --> periphery

33

HSV indentification

-PCR (gold standard)
-TZANCK test: smear opened skin vesicle (HSV1/2/3). Look for multinucleated giant cells w intranuclear inclusions
-Infected cells: COWDRY A INCLUSIONS
-Cutaneous HSV: grouped vesicles on an erythematous base.

34

HHV-8

dsDNA, linear, enveloped
--> Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV pts
-spready by Sex

35

EBV --> MONO

-sxs: fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy post cervical**
-15-20 yrs
-infects B cells (CD21)
-atypical lymphs on periph smear: CD8+
-Pos. monospot test: Heterophile ab's --> agglutinate sheet/horse rbcs