RNA viruses + mixed! - Sheet1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in RNA viruses + mixed! - Sheet1 Deck (36):
1

Reoviruses
"REO: Rapid Enteric Orphan" = children get diarrhea!

dsRNA**, linear (10-12 semgents), naked
-ICOSAHEDRAL (double)
=Coltivirus: Colorado tick fever
=ROTAVIRUS: #1 cause of fatal diarrhea in children --> villous destruction.atrophy (decr absorption of Na+ and loss of K+)
**ROTA vaccine!
ROTA: Right Out The Anus

2

Picornavirus
"Enterovirus"

ssRNA +, naked (--> 1 large polypeptide that is cleaved by proteases-->fxnl)
-ICOSAHEDRAL
=Poliovirus: Salk IPV / Sabin OPV: aseptic meningitis, assymmetric paralysis, hyporeflexic.
=Echovirus: aseptic meningitis
=Rhinovirus: "common cold" (acid-labile=destroyed in GI, binds to ICAM-1/CD54)
=Coxsackievirus: aseptic meningitis, herpangina (mouth blisters,fever): HAND FOOT MOUTH ds, Myocarditis
=HAV: acute Hepatitis A
-all are fecal-oral except rhino(acid-labile)

PERCH your NAKED self on this Railing for the PICture, you look POSitively goregous!!

**most common cause of aseptic meningitis (Polio, Echo, Coxsackie)

3

Hepevirus

ssRNA+, naked, icosahedral
=Hepatitis E

4

Calcivirus

ssRNA+, naked, icosahedral
=Norovirus --> viral gastroenteritis (cruise ships!)

-NORa wanted to drink enough CALCIum crystal/icosahedral before her SINGLE Ride on the beach/naked cruise ship

5

Flavivirus

ssRNA+, evenloped, Icosahedral
=Hepatitis C
=Yellow Fever (Aedes mosquito)
=Dengue (m) "Breakbone fever"
=St. Louis encephalitis (m)
=West Nile Virus (m)

Wear a rain jacket/envelope in Africa down the West Nile (river = single stranded, raft: icosahedral shaped)!

6

Togaviruses

ssRNA+, envelope, icosahedral
=Rubella ("german measles")
=Eastern equine encephalitis (mt)
=Western equine encephalitis (mt)

Toga party at the German Equine center! sounds Positively fun!

7

Retrovirus

ssRNA+, envelope (reverse transcriptase activity)
=HTLV-1: icosahedral, T-cell leukemia
=HIV: complex/conical
-do not replicate in the cytoplasm like the other RNA viruses

Wear a condom/Envelope so you don't get HIV and HTLV-1!

8

Coronavirus

ssRNA+, envelope, helical*
=Coronoavirus: common cold and SARS

9

Orthyomyxovirus

ssRNA-, evenlope, helical, (8 segments)
=INFLUENZA! contains hemagluttinin (promotes viral entry) and Neuraminidase (promotes progeny virion release)
-does not replicate in the cytoplasm like the other RNA viruses
-pts at risk for bacterial superinfection
-Rapid genetic changes

Those ORTHO guys think they are awesome (do 8 sets at the gym, helical bench-press bar) but they didn't get the flu shot this year: INFLUENZA shot (NEGative)
-also they have sex a lot probably so they need alot of envelopes, but they make your head spin/HELICAL bc they have no emotional maturity - hence they are SINGLE

10

Paramyxoviruses

ssRNA-, envelope, helical
=Parainfluenza: croup (upper resp sxs --> hoarseness, barking/brassy cough, strider)
=RSV: bronchiolitis in babies, Rx: Palivizumab/Ribavirin (anti-F) upper resp sxs --> wheezing, cough, resp distress
=Measles
=Mumps
-all contain surface F/FUSION protein: causes respiratory epithelial cells to fuse --> MULTINUCLEATED cells

PaRaMyxo (Parainfluenza, RSV, Mumps/Measles)
"Myxo" mix it all up, created fused cells! multinucleate!

11

Rhabdovirus

ssRNA-, envelope (BULLET-SHAPED), helical
-glycoprotein spikes that bind to nicotinic Ach receptors
=RABIES
dogs like helical chew toys bc they look like bones. wrap it up in an envelope so you don't have to touch their gross saliva!

12

Filoviruses

ssRNA-, envelope, helical
=Ebola/Marburg hemorrhagic fever

Filo dough that E-BOWL-right-UP!
(filo dough = ENVELOPE, rolled tight like a HELIX

13

Arenavirus

ssRNA-, CIRCULAR 2 segments, envelope, helical
=LCMV: Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (mice!); febrile aseptic meningoecephalitis
=Lassa fever encephalitis: spread by mice (mice!)

Arenas are CIRCULAR. Tibetan mice on the race track (Lassa Fever), Let's Cee them MoVe! 2 segments = the Tibetan Mice vs the others (2 teams)

14

Bunyaviruses

ssRNA-, CIRCULAR 3 segments, envelope, helical
=California encephalitis (mt)
=Sandfly/Rift valley fevers (mt)
=Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (mt)
=Hantavirus- hemorrhagic fever, pneumonia (rats)

Bunyans are on the big toe and are tumors that are CIRCULAR

15

Delta virus

ssRNA-, CIRCULAR, envelope, shape?
=Hepatitis D (D for delta) - is "Defective" and requires HBV co-infection

The Delta virus has CIRCULAR RNA bc it looks the most like HBV then - whoes coating it neds

16

Negative stranded RNA viruses (-ssRNA)

Always Bring Polymerase Or Fail to Replicate
(transcribe neg to positive)
Arenavirus
Bunyavirus
Paramyxovirus
Orthomyxovirus
Filovirus
Rhabdovirus

17

Segmented viruses

All are RNA viruses: BOAR (you cut up to serve!)
Bunyavirus
Orthomyxovirus (influenza)
Arenaviruses
Reoviruses

18

Yellow Fever

-a Flavivirus
-transmitted by Aedes mosquito, Human or Monkey reservoir
-sxs: High fever, BLACK vomit, JAUNDICE ("yellow" fever bc you turn yellow)

19

Influenza: Shift and Drift

-Shift: pandemics. Reassortment of virla genome, segments undergo high-frequency recombination
-Drift: epidemics. Minor (antigenic drift) from random mutations

Sudden Shift is more deadly than graDual Drift

20

Rubella

"German measles!"
-Togovirus
-sxs: Fever, post-Auricular** lymphadenopathy, arthlragias*, fine truncal rash (head --> moves down = truncal rash (no hands and feet vs measles))
-Congenital in children: deafness, cataracts, cardiac malformation (PDA)

21

Measles

-Paramyxovirus
-3 C's: Cough, Coryza (nasal mucosal inflammation), Conjunctivitis
-sxs: KOPLIK spots (cheek mucosa: red spots w blue-white center), Descending rash (head --> down) that can darken/coalesce (presents last, includes hands and feet vs rubella).
--> possible sequale: SSPE Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (yrs later), Encephalitis, Giant Cell Pneumonia

22

Mumps

-Paramyxovirus
-sxs: Parotitis, Orchitis (inflammation of testes), aseptic Meningitis --> sterility in puberty

mumps make your parotid glands and testes as big as POM-poms

23

Rabies

Rhabdovirus
-NEGRI body inclusions (Purkinje cells in cerebellum)
-Long incubation period
-Postexposure rx: wound cleanign, vaccination + rabies IgG
-virus goes to CNS by retrograde travel on nerve axons (attachs to nicotinic Ach receptors)
-sxs: Fever malaise --> dysphagia/pharyngospasm, AGITATION, PHOTOPHOBIA, HYDROPHOBIA, excess saliva --> Paralysis, coma, death
-Bats (caves), raccoons, skunk bites, dogs

24

Hepatitis: short incubation periods

Hep A, E, and D when it's super-infecting

25

Hepatitis A

-RNA Picornavirus
-Fecal-oral, shellfish/oysters
-short incubation period, no HCC risk
-Asxs (usually), Acute, Alone (no carriers)
-sxs: AVERSION to SMOKING. anorexia, abdml pain, fever, etc.

26

Hepatitis B

-DNA Hepadnavirus
-Blood, semen, saliva, sweat, tears, breast milk*
-Long incubation
-carries its own RNA-dependent DNA polymerase
--> HCC bc integrates itself into host virus (acts as oncogene)

27

Hepatitis C

-RNA Flavivirus
-primary blood transmission (IVDU, post-transfusion)
-long incubation
--> HCC from chronic inflammation
-Enevelope has high mutation rate - ab's lab behind
-Chronic, Cirrhosis, Carcinoma, Carrier, CURE

28

Hepatits D

RNA Delta virus
-Blood, semen, saliva, sweat , maternal-fetal*
-superinfxn: short incubation. co-infection: long incubation
-Defective virus, Dependent on HBV
-superinxn? poor prognosis

29

Hepatitis E

RNA, hepevirus
-fecal oral, esp w waterborne epidemics
-no envelope
-short incubation period, High mortality in pregnant women**
-Enteric, Expecting mothers, Epidemic

30

Path: acute hepatitis

Ballooning degeneration, mononuclear cell infiltrates, Councilman bodies/eosinophilic apoptotic hepatocytes
-fever, jaundice, elevated ALT/AST

31

HIV proteins

-gp120: enveleop, attachment to CD4+ (anti gp-120 can cross placenta, see false positve in babies born to infected mothers)
-gp41:fusion and entry
-gp120 and gp41 made from cleavage of gp160
-gag(p24): capsid protein
-pol: reverse transcriptase, aspartate protease, integrase

32

HIV replication

-T cells: Binds to CD4+ and CCR5 (early) or CXCR4 (late)
-macrophages: CD14 and CCR5

33

HIV dx

-1) ELISA: sensitive (rule it out)
-2) Western blot: specific (rule it in)
-HIV PCR/viral load test: monitoring

34

Time course of HIV

-1) Flu-like sxs (acute - drop in CD4, dissemination of virus, seeding of Lymphoid organs)
-2) Feeling fine (latent: HIV replicate in LNs)
-3) Falling count
-4) Final crisis

35

As CD4 count drops...

-risk of reactivation of past infxns (TB, HSV, shingles)
-dissemination of bacterial and fungal infxns (e.g. coccidiomycosis)
-NHL (latent EBV reactivation): DLBCL

36

Prions

-nl protein: Prion PrPc --> Prpsc
--> Spongiform encephalopathy, dementia, ataxia, death
-Creutzfeldt-Jacob ds: sporadic
-Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome: inherited
-Kuru: acquired