Part 2- Microbio Diagnosing - Sheet1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Part 2- Microbio Diagnosing - Sheet1 Deck (53):
1

UTI presentation

Dysuria, frequency, urgency, suprapubic pain, WBCs (but no wbc casts)

2

Pyelonephritic presentation

WBC casts*, fever, chills, flank pain, CVA tenderness, hematuria

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Predisposing factors for UTI

-Women (short urethras, colonized by fecal flora)
-obstruction
-kidney surgery
-catheterization
-GU malformations (vesicoureteral reflux)
-Diabetes
-pregnancy

4

Diagnosing UTI

-Positive leukocyte esterase test = Bacterial UTI
-Positive Nitrite test = Gram-neg bacterial UTI

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Leading cause of UTI

E. coli

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2nd leading cause of community-acquired UTI in sexually active women

Staph Saprophyticus
(suck it, saprophyticus!)

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3rd leading cause of UTI
Large mucoid capsule, viscous colonies, positive urease

Klebsiella

8

Nosocomial and drug-resistant UTI

-Serratia Marcescens (produce cherry red pigment)
-Enterobacter cloacae
-Pseudomonas (blue-green pigment, fruit odor)

9

UTI: assoc w struvite stones. Motility causes "swarming" on agar, produces urease

Proteus mirabilis

10

Childhood rash: rash begins on face and moves down --> fine truncal rash, Postauricular lymphadenopathy

Rubella!

11

Childhood rash: beginning at head and moving down, rash is preceded by cough, coryza, conjunctivitis and blue-white/Koplik spots on buccal mucosa

Measles! (a paramyxovirus)

12

Childhood rash: Vesicular rash begins on trunk, spreads to face and extremities w lesions of different age**

Chickenpox (VZV)

13

Childhood rash: Macular rash over body appears after several days of high fever. can present w febrile seizures**. Affects infants

Roseola (HHV-6)

14

Childhood rash: "Slapped cheek" rash on face (can cause hydrops fetalis in pregnant woman)

Parvovirus B19
"Erythema infectiosum"

15

Childhood rash: Erythematous, sandpaper-like rash w fever and sore throat

Scarlet fever (Step pyogenes)

16

Childhood rash: Vesicular rash on palms and soles, ulcers* in oral mucosa

Hand-foot-mouth ds (Coxsackievirus type A)

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STD: Urethritis, cervicitis, PID, prostatitis, epididymis, arthritis*, creamy PURULENT discharge

Gonorrhea (N. gonorrhoeae)

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STD: Painless chancre

Primary syphillis (Treponema pallidum)

19

STD: Fever, lymphadenopathy, skin rashes, condyloma lata

2ndary syphillis (Treponema pallidum)

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STD: Gummas, tabes dorsalis, general paresis, aortitis, Argyll Robertson pupil

Tertiary syphillis (Treponema pallidum)

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STD: Painful genital ulcer, inguinal adenopathy

Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi - "it's so painful, you DO CRY")

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STD: Painful penile, vulvar, or cervical vesicles and ulcers. Can cause systemic sxs such as fever, headache, myalgia

Genital herpes: HSV-2, less commonly HSV-1

23

STD: Urethritis, cervicitis, conjunctivitis, Reiter's syndrome, PID

Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis D-K)

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STD: Infxn of lymphatics; genital ulcers (heal quickly, painless), lymphadenopathy, RECTAL STRICTURES**

Lymphogranulmoa venereum (C. trachomatis L1-L3)

25

STD: Vaginitis, strawberry-colored mucosa, motile on wet prep

Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis)

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STD: Opportunistic infxns, kaposi's sarcoma, lymphoma

AIDS/HIV

27

STD: Genital warts, Koilocytes

Condyloma Accuminata* (HPV6 and 11)

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STD: Jaundice

Hepatitis B

29

STD: Noninflammatory, malodorous discharge (fishy smell), positive whiff test, clue cells, not exclusively an STD

BV: Gardenella vaginalis

30

PID top bugs:

Chlamydia tachomatis (subacute, often undiagnosed)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (acute)
-Sxs: Cervical motion tenderness/Chandelier sign, purulent cervical discharge

31

Nosocomial: Newborn nursery

RSV, CMV

32

Nosocomial: Urinary catheterization

E. coli
Proteus mirabilis

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Nosocomial: wound infection

Staph aureus

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Nosocomial: Respiratory therapy equipment

Pseudomonas (assume when air or burns are involved)

35

Nosocomial: work in renal dialysis unit

HBV (needle stick)

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Nosocomial: Hyperalimentation (over eating, too much protein/urea --> osmotic diuresis)

Assoc w Candida

37

Nosocomial; water aerosols

Legionella!

38

HY: pus, empyema, abscess

Staph aureus

39

HY: Pediatric infection

Haemophilus influenzae (including epiglottis for those not vaccinated)

40

HY: Pneumonia in CF, burn infection

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

41

HY: Branching rods in oral infxn, sulfur granules

Actinomyces Israelii

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HY: Traumatic open wound

Clostridium perfingens

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HY: Surigcal wound

Staph aureus

44

HY: Dog or cat bite

Pasteurella multocida

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HY: "currant jelly" sputum

Klebsiella

46

HY: positive PAS stain

Tropheryma whipplei (Whipple's ds)

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HY: sepsis/meningitis in newborn

Group B strep (aglactaie)

48

HY: Health care provider

HBV (needle stick)

49

HY: Fungal infxn in diabetic or immunocompromized

Mucor or Rhizopus spp

50

HY: Asplenic pt

Encapsulated, esp: Strep pneumo, H. flu type B, N. meningitidies

51

HY: Chronic granulomatous ds

Catalase positive microbes, esp S. aureus

52

HY: Neutropenic pts

Candida albicans (systemic), Aspergillus

53

HY: Facial nerve palsy

Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme ds)